Generic System Images

A generic system image (GSI) is a system image with adjusted configurations for Android devices. It's considered a pure Android implementation with unmodified Android Open Source Project (AOSP) code that any Android device running Android 8.1 or higher can run successfully.

GSIs are used for running VTS and CTS-on-GSI tests. The system image of an Android device is replaced with a GSI then tested with the Vendor Test Suite (VTS) and the Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) to ensure that the device implements vendor interfaces correctly with the latest version of Android.

To get started with GSIs, review the following sections for details on GSI configurations (and allowed variances), types (Android GSI and Legacy GSI), and vendor binaries and VNDK dependencies. When you're ready to use a GSI, download and build the GSI for your device target, then flash the GSI to an Android device.

GSI configuration and variances

The current Android GSI project has the following configuration:

  • Treble. The GSI includes full support for the HIDL-based architectural changes (also known as Treble) introduced in Android 8.0, including support for the HIDL interfaces. You can use the GSI on any Android device that uses HIDL vendor interfaces. (For more details, see Architecture resources.)
  • Verify boot. The GSI doesn't include a verify boot solution (such as vboot 1.0 or AVB). To flash the GSI to an Android device, the device must have a method for disabling verify boot.
  • Build variant. The GSI always uses a userdebug build variant to enable running VTS and CTS. After replacing the system image with the GSI, you can root the device then test with a user-build vendor image and a userdebug-build system image.
  • File system and image format. The GSI uses an ext4 file system with a sparse image format.

The current Android GSI project includes the following major variances:

  • Version. Support for Android 8.0, Android 8.1, and Android 9.
  • CPU architecture. Support for different CPU instructions (ARM, x86, etc.) and CPU bitness (32 bit or 64 bit).
  • Partition layout. Can use system-as-root or non-system-as-root partition layout.
  • Support for binder interface bitness.

GSI types

The GSI used for compliance testing is determined by the Android version that the device launches with. Android supports the following GSIs.

GSI name Description Product name
Android GSI For devices launching with Android 9. This GSI can run only on devices running Android 9 and higher. aosp_$arch
Legacy GSI For devices launching with Android 8.0 or Android 8.1. This GSI can run only on devices running Android 8.x. aosp_$arch_a(b)

All GSIs are built from the Android 9 codebase, and each CPU architecture has a corresponding GSI binary (see the list of build targets in Building GSIs).

Android 9 GSI changes

Devices launching with Android 9 must use Android 9 GSIs for compliance testing. This includes the following major changes from earlier GSIs:

  • Merges GSI and emulator. GSIs are built from the system images of emulator products, for example, aosp_arm64 and aosp_x86.
  • System-as-root. In previous versions of Android, devices that didn't support A/B updates could mount the system image under the /system directory. In Android 9, the root of the system image is mounted as the root of the device.
  • 64-bit binder interface. In Android 8.x, 32-bit GSIs used the 32-bit binder interface. Android 9 doesn't support the 32-bit binder interface, so both 32-bit GSIs and 64-bit GSIs use the 64-bit binder interface.
  • VNDK enforcement. In Android 8.1, VNDK was optional. In Android 9, VNDK is mandatory, so BOARD_VNDK_VERSION must be set.
  • Compatible system property. Android 9 enables the access check for a compatible system property (PRODUCT_COMPATIBLE_PROPERTY_OVERRIDE := true).

To test devices launching with Android 9 with CTS-on-GSI, use the Android 9 GSI build targets.

Android 9 legacy GSI changes

Devices upgrading to Android 9 can use a legacy GSI product named with the suffix _ab or _a (for example, aosp_arm64_ab, aosp_x86_a) for compliance testing. This GSI supports the following upgrade use cases:

  • Devices with the Android 8.1 vendor interface implementation
  • Devices updated to the Android 9 vendor interface implementation

Legacy GSIs are built from the Android 9 source tree but contain the following backward-compatible configurations for upgraded devices:

  • Non system-as-root. Devices that don't support system-as-root can continue to use _a products (for example, aosp_arm_a).
  • 32-bit userspace + 32-bit binder interface. 32-bit GSIs can continue to use the 32-bit binder interface.
  • 8.1 VNDK. Devices can use the included 8.1 VNDK.
  • Mount directories. Some legacy devices use directories as mount pointers (for example, /bluetooth, /firmware/radio, and /persist).

To test devices upgrading to Android 9 with CTS-on-GSI, use the legacy GSI build targets.

Android 9 Keymaster changes

In earlier versions of Android, devices implementing Keymaster 3 or lower were required to verify that the version info ( and reported by the running system matched the version info reported by bootloader. Such information was typically obtained from the boot image header.

In Android 9, this requirement has changed to enable vendors to boot a GSI. Specifically, Keymaster shouldn't perform verification because the version info reported by the GSI may not match the version info reported by vendor's bootloader. For devices implementing Keymaster 3 or lower, vendors must modify the Keymaster implementation to skip verification (or upgrade to Keymaster 4). For details on Keymaster, refer to Hardware-backed Keystore.

Vendor binaries and VNDK dependencies

Devices upgrading to Android 9 have different upgrade paths depending on the version of vendor binaries in use on the device and the VNDK-related configurations used to build the device. The following table summarizes the legacy GSI support for upgraded devices.

Use case Vendor
system binaries version
Legacy GSI support
0 8.0 (any) 9 No
1 8.1 (empty) 9 No
2 8.1 current 9 Yes
3 9 current 9 Yes

The most common supported use case is #2, where the legacy GSIs support devices running Android 8.1 that were built with BOARD_VNDK_VERSION set to current.

The case #1 isn't supported. In this case, the legacy GSIs do NOT support devices running Android 8.1 where BOARD_VNDK_VERSION is omitted from the build. These devices can't be supported because their vendor binaries depend on Android 8.1 non-VNDK shared libraries, which aren't included in legacy GSIs. To make these devices compatible with a legacy GSI, you must do one of the following:



  • Port/upgrade the vendor binaries to depend on the shared libraries from Android 9 (use case #3).

Downloading GSIs

You can download prebuilt GSIs for some Android 9 GSI types from the AOSP continuous integration (CI) website at If the GSI type for your hardware platform is unavailable for download, refer to the following section for details on building GSIs for specific targets.

Building GSIs

Starting with Android 9, each Android version has a GSI branch named DESSERT-gsi on AOSP (for example, pie-gsi is the GSI branch on Android 9). GSI branches include the content of Android with all security patches and GSI patches applied.

To build a GSI, set up the Android source tree by downloading from a GSI branch and choosing a GSI build target. Use the build target tables below to determine the correct GSI version for your device. After the build completes, the GSI is the system image (that is, system.img) and appears in the output folder out/target/product/generic_arm64_ab. The build also outputs vbmeta.img, which you can use to disable verify boot on the devices using Android Verified Boot.

For example, to build the legacy GSI build target aosp_arm64_ab-userdebug on the GSI branch pie-gsi, run the following commands.

$ repo init -u -b pie-gsi
$ repo sync -cq
$ source build/
$ lunch aosp_arm64_ab-userdebug
$ make -j4

Android 9 GSI build targets

The following GSI build targets are for devices launching with Android 9. Due to a reduction in variances between architectures, Android 9 includes only four GSI products.

GSI name CPU arch Binder interface bitness System-as-root Product name
aosp_arm ARM 64 Y aosp_arm-userdebug
aosp_arm64 ARM64 64 Y aosp_arm64-userdebug
aosp_x86 x86 64 Y aosp_x86-userdebug
aosp_x86_64 x86-64 64 Y aosp_x86_64-userdebug

Android 9 legacy GSI build targets

The following legacy GSI build targets are for devices upgrading to Android 9. Legacy GSI names include the suffix _ab or _a to distinguish them from Android 9 GSI names.

GSI name CPU arch Binder interface bitness System-as-root Product name
aosp_arm_a ARM 32 N aosp_arm_a-userdebug
aosp_arm_ab ARM 32 Y aosp_arm_ab-userdebug
aosp_arm_64b_ab ARM 64 Y aosp_arm_64b_ab-userdebug
aosp_arm64_a ARM64 64 N aosp_arm64_a-userdebug
aosp_arm64_ab ARM64 64 Y aosp_arm64_ab-userdebug
aosp_x86_a x86 32 N aosp_x86_a-userdebug
aosp_x86_ab x86 32 Y aosp_x86_ab-userdebug
aosp_x86_64_a x86-64 64 N aosp_x86_64_a-userdebug
aosp_x86_64_ab x86-64 64 Y aosp_x86_64_ab-userdebug

Requirements for flashing GSIs

Android devices can have different designs, so no single command or set of instructions for flashing a GSI to a specific device is possible. Check with the manufacturer of the Android device for explicit flashing instructions or use the following general steps as guidelines:

  1. Ensure that the device has the following:
    • Support for HIDL-HAL interfaces
    • A method for unlocking devices (so they can be flashed using fastboot)
    • A method for disabling verify boot (for example, vboot 1.0 or AVB)
    • An unlocked state to make it flashable via fastboot (To ensure that you have the latest version of fastboot, build it from the Android source tree.)
  2. Disable verify boot.
  3. Erase the current system partition, then flash the GSI to the system partition.
  4. Wipe the user data and clear the data from other necessary partitions (for example, user data and system partitions).
  5. Reboot the device.

For example, to flash a GSI to any Pixel device:

  1. Boot to fastboot mode and unlock the bootloader.
  2. Disable verify boot (AVB) by flashing vbmeta.img:
    $ fastboot --disable-verification flash vbmeta vbmeta.img
  3. Erase and flash the GSI to the system partition:
    $ fastboot erase system
    $ fastboot flash system system.img
  4. Wipe the user data and clear the data from other necessary partitions (for example, user data and system partitions):
    $ fastboot -w
  5. Reboot:
    $ fastboot reboot

Contributing to GSIs

Android welcomes your contributions to GSI development. You can get involved and help improve the GSI by:

  • Creating a GSI patch. DESSERT-gsi is not a development branch and accepts only cherrypicks from the AOSP master branch, so to submit a GSI patch, you must:
    1. Submit the patch to the AOSP master branch.
    2. Cherrypick the patch to DESSERT-gsi.
    3. File a bug to get the cherrypick reviewed.
  • Reporting GSI bugs or making other suggestions. Review the instructions in Reporting Bugs, then browse or file GSI bugs.