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3.2.軟 API 兼容性
3.3.本機 API 兼容性
3.5. API 行為兼容性
3.6. API 命名空間
附錄 A - 藍牙測試程序
本文檔列舉了設備與 Android 4.0 兼容所必須滿足的要求。
“必須”、“不得”、“要求”、“應”、“不應”、“應該”、“不應該”、“推薦”、“可以”和“可選”的使用符合 IETF 標準在 RFC2119 [資源，1 ] 中定義。
在本文檔中，“設備實施者”或“實施者”是指開發運行 Android 4.0 的硬件/軟件解決方案的個人或組織。 “設備實現”或“實現”是這樣開發的硬件/軟件解決方案。
要被視為與 Android 4.0 兼容，設備實現必須滿足此兼容性定義中提出的要求，包括通過引用合併的任何文檔。
如果此定義或第 10 節中描述的軟件測試是沉默的、模棱兩可的或不完整的，則設備實施者有責任確保與現有實施的兼容性。
出於這個原因，Android 開源項目 [參考資料，3 ] 是 Android 的參考和首選實現。強烈鼓勵設備實施者盡可能以 Android 開源項目提供的“上游”源代碼為基礎進行實施。雖然假設某些組件可以替換為替代實現，但強烈不鼓勵這種做法，因為通過軟件測試將變得更加困難。實施者有責任確保與標準 Android 實施的完全行為兼容性，包括並超出兼容性測試套件。最後，請注意本文檔明確禁止某些組件替換和修改。
- IETF RFC2119 要求級別： http ://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
- Android 兼容性程序概述：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/index.html
- 安卓開源項目：http: //source.android.com/
- API 定義和文檔：http: //developer.android.com/reference/packages.html
- Android 權限參考：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/Manifest.permission.html
- android.os.Build 參考：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html
- Android 4.0 允許的版本字符串：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/4.0/versions.html
- 渲染腳本：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/renderscript.html
- 硬件加速：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/hardware-accel.html
- android.webkit.WebView類：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/webkit/WebView.html
- HTML5：http: //www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/
- HTML5 離線功能： http ://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#offline
- HTML5 視頻標籤： http ://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#video
- HTML5/W3C 地理定位 API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/
- HTML5/W3C 網絡數據庫 API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/webdatabase/
- HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
- Dalvik 虛擬機規範：在 Android 源代碼中可用，位於 dalvik/docs
- AppWidgets：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guidelines/widget_design.html
- 通知：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifiers/notifications.html
- 應用資源： http ://code.google.com/android/reference/available-resources.html
- 狀態欄圖標樣式指南：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guideline /icon_design.html#statusbarstructure
- 搜索管理器：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/SearchManager.html
- 敬酒：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast.html
- 主題：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/themes.html
- R.style 類：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html
- 動態壁紙： https ://android-developers.googleblog.com/2010/02/live-wallpapers.html
- Android 設備管理：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/admin/device-admin.html
- android.app.admin.DevicePolicyManager 類：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html
- Android 輔助功能服務 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/accessibilityservice/package-summary.html
- Android 輔助功能 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/view/accessibility/package-summary.html
- Eyes Free 項目： http ://code.google.com/p/eyes-free
- 文字轉語音 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/speech/tts/package-summary.html
- 參考工具文檔（adb、aapt、ddms）：http: //developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/index.html
- 安卓apk文件說明：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/fundamentals.html
- 清單文件：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/manifest-intro.html
- 猴子測試工具： https ://developer.android.com/studio/test/other-testing-tools/monkey
- Android android.content.pm.PackageManager 類和硬件特性列表：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html
- 支持多屏幕：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html
- android.util.DisplayMetrics：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/util/DisplayMetrics.html
- android.content.res.Configuration：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html
- android.hardware.SensorEvent：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/SensorEvent.html
- 藍牙 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/package-summary.html
- NDEF 推送協議：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/ndef-push-protocol.pdf
- MIFARE MF1S503X： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf
- MIFARE MF1S703X： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S703x.pdf
- MIFARE MF0ICU1： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf
- MIFARE MF0ICU2： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/short_data_sheet/MF0ICU2_SDS.pdf
- MIFARE AN130511： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130511.pdf
- MIFARE AN130411： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130411.pdf
- 相機方向 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html#setDisplayOrientation(int)
- 安卓開放配件：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/accessory.html
- USB 主機 API：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/host.html
- Android 安全和權限參考：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/security.html
- 適用於 Android 的應用程序： http ://code.google.com/p/apps-for-android
- android.app.DownloadManager 類：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/DownloadManager.html
- 安卓文件傳輸： http ://www.android.com/filetransfer
- 安卓媒體格式：http: //developer.android.com/guide/appendix/media-formats.html
- HTTP 直播流協議草案： http ://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-03
- 運動事件 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/view/MotionEvent.html
- 觸摸輸入配置：http: //source.android.com/tech/input/touch-devices.html
其中許多資源直接或間接源自 Android 4.0 SDK，並且在功能上與該 SDK 文檔中的信息相同。在任何情況下，如果此兼容性定義或兼容性測試套件與 SDK 文檔不一致，則 SDK 文檔被視為權威。上述參考文獻中提供的任何技術細節都被視為包含在本兼容性定義中。
3.1.託管 API 兼容性
託管（基於 Dalvik）執行環境是 Android 應用程序的主要載體。 Android 應用程序編程接口 (API) 是暴露給在託管 VM 環境中運行的應用程序的一組 Android 平台接口。設備實現必須提供由 Android 4.0 SDK [參考資料，4 ] 公開的任何已記錄 API 的完整實現，包括所有已記錄的行為。
設備實現不得省略任何託管 API、更改 API 接口或簽名、偏離記錄的行為或包含空操作，除非本兼容性定義明確允許。
此兼容性定義允許設備實現省略某些類型的硬件，其中 Android 包含 API。在這種情況下，API 必須仍然存在並以合理的方式運行。有關此場景的特定要求，請參閱第 7 節。
3.2.軟 API 兼容性
除了第 3.1 節中的託管 API 之外，Android 還包括一個重要的僅限運行時的“軟”API，其形式為 Intents、權限和 Android 應用程序的類似方面，這些方面不能在應用程序編譯時強制執行。
設備實現者必須支持並強制執行權限參考頁 [參考資料，5 ] 中記錄的所有權限常量。請注意，第 10 節列出了與 Android 安全模型相關的其他要求。
Android API 在
android.os.Build類 [ Resources, 6 ] 中包含許多常量，這些常量旨在描述當前設備。為了在設備實現中提供一致的、有意義的值，下表包括對設備實現必須遵守的這些值的格式的額外限制。
|android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE||當前執行的 Android 系統的版本，採用人類可讀的格式。該字段必須具有 [ Resources, 7 ] 中定義的字符串值之一。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK||當前執行的 Android 系統的版本，採用第三方應用程序代碼可訪問的格式。對於 Android 4.0.1 - 4.0.2，該字段必須具有整數值 14。對於 Android 4.0.3 或更高版本，該字段必須具有整數值 15。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT||當前執行的 Android 系統的版本，採用第三方應用程序代碼可訪問的格式。對於 Android 4.0.1 - 4.0.2，該字段必須具有整數值 14。對於 Android 4.0.3 或更高版本，該字段必須具有整數值 15。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL||由設備實現者選擇的值，以人類可讀的格式指定當前正在執行的 Android 系統的特定版本。此值不得重複用於最終用戶可用的不同構建。此字段的典型用途是指示使用哪個內部版本號或源代碼控制更改標識符來生成內部版本。該字段的具體格式沒有要求，只是不能為空或空字符串（“”）。|
|android.os.Build.BOARD||設備實施者選擇的值，以人類可讀的格式標識設備使用的特定內部硬件。該字段的一個可能用途是指示為設備供電的電路板的特定版本。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.BRAND 品牌||設備實施者選擇的值，以人類可讀的格式標識生產設備的公司、組織、個人等的名稱。此字段的一個可能用途是指示銷售該設備的 OEM 和/或運營商。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.CPU_ABI||本機代碼的指令集（CPU 類型 + ABI 約定）的名稱。請參閱第 3.3 節：本機 API 兼容性。|
|android.os.Build.CPU_ABI2||本機代碼的第二個指令集（CPU 類型 + ABI 約定）的名稱。請參閱第 3.3 節：本機 API 兼容性。|
|android.os.Build.DEVICE||由設備實施者選擇的值，用於標識設備主體（有時稱為“工業設計”）的特定配置或版本。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
指紋不得包含空白字符。如果上述模板中包含的其他字段具有空白字符，則必須在構建指紋中將其替換為其他字符，例如下劃線 (“_”) 字符。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII。
|android.os.Build.硬件||硬件名稱（來自內核命令行或 /proc）。它應該是合理的人類可讀的。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.ID||設備實施者選擇的標識符，以人類可讀格式引用特定版本。該字段可以與 android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL 相同，但應該是一個足以讓最終用戶區分軟件版本的值。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.MANUFACTURER||產品原始設備製造商 (OEM) 的商標名稱。該字段的具體格式沒有要求，只是不能為空或空字符串（“”）。|
|android.os.Build.PRODUCT||設備實施者選擇的一個值，其中包含產品 (SKU) 的開發名稱或代號。必須是人類可讀的，但不一定供最終用戶查看。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.SERIAL||硬件序列號（如果有）。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.TAGS||設備實施者選擇的以逗號分隔的標籤列表，進一步區分構建。例如，“未簽名，調試”。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
|android.os.Build.TYPE||由設備實現者選擇的值，指定構建的運行時配置。該字段應該具有對應於三種典型 Android 運行時配置的值之一：“user”、“userdebug”或“eng”。該字段的值必須可編碼為 7 位 ASCII，並匹配正則表達式|
設備實現必須遵循 Android 的鬆散耦合 Intent 系統，如下文所述。 “榮譽”意味著設備實現者必須提供一個 Android 活動或服務，指定一個匹配的 Intent 過濾器並綁定到每個指定的 Intent 模式並為每個指定的 Intent 模式實現正確的行為。
但是，任何此類替代版本都必須遵循上游項目提供的相同 Intent 模式。例如，如果設備包含替代音樂播放器，它仍然必須遵循第三方應用程序發出的 Intent 模式來選擇歌曲。
以下應用程序被視為核心 Android 系統應用程序：
核心 Android 系統應用程序包括各種被認為是“公共”的 Activity 或 Service 組件。也就是說，屬性“android:exported”可能不存在，或者可能具有值“true”。
對於核心 Android 系統應用之一中定義的每個活動或服務，如果未通過值為“false”的 android:exported 屬性標記為非公共，設備實現必須包含實現相同 Intent 過濾器的相同類型的組件patterns 作為核心的 Android 系統應用程序。
換句話說，設備實現可以取代核心 Android 系統應用程序；但是，如果是這樣，設備實現必須支持由每個被替換的核心 Android 系統應用程序定義的所有 Intent 模式。
由於 Android 是一個可擴展的平台，設備實現必須允許第 18.104.22.168 節中引用的每個 Intent 模式被第三方應用程序覆蓋。上游 Android 開源實現默認允許這樣做；設備實現者不得將特殊權限附加到系統應用程序對這些 Intent 模式的使用，或阻止第三方應用程序綁定到這些模式並承擔對這些模式的控制。該禁令具體包括但不限於禁用“選擇器”用戶界面，該界面允許用戶在處理相同 Intent 模式的多個應用程序之間進行選擇。
設備實現不得包含任何使用 android.* 或 com.android.* 命名空間中的 ACTION、CATEGORY 或其他鍵字符串來支持任何新 Intent 或 Broadcast Intent 模式的 Android 組件。設備實現者不得在屬於另一個組織的包空間中包含任何使用 ACTION、CATEGORY 或其他鍵字符串來支持任何新 Intent 或 Broadcast Intent 模式的 Android 組件。設備實施者不得更改或擴展第 22.214.171.124 節中列出的核心應用程序使用的任何 Intent 模式。設備實現可以包括使用命名空間的 Intent 模式，這些命名空間與他們自己的組織明確相關。
此禁止類似於第 3.6 節中為 Java 語言類指定的禁止。
第三方應用依賴平台廣播某些Intent，通知自身硬件或軟件環境的變化。 Android 兼容設備必須廣播公共廣播 Intent 以響應適當的系統事件。 SDK 文檔中描述了廣播意圖。
3.3.本機 API 兼容性
在 Dalvik 中運行的託管代碼可以調用應用程序 .apk 文件中提供的本機代碼，作為針對相應設備硬件架構編譯的 ELF .so 文件。由於本機代碼高度依賴於底層處理器技術，因此 Android 在 Android NDK 中定義了許多應用程序二進制接口 (ABI)，位於文件
docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt中。如果設備實現與一個或多個定義的 ABI 兼容，它應該實現與 Android NDK 的兼容性，如下所示。
如果設備實現包括對 Android ABI 的支持，它：
- 必須包括對在託管環境中運行的代碼的支持，以使用標準 Java 本機接口 (JNI) 語義調用本機代碼。
- 必須與下面列表中的每個必需庫源代碼兼容（即標頭兼容）和二進制兼容（對於 ABI）
android.os.Build.CPU_ABIAPI 準確報告設備支持的本機應用程序二進制接口 (ABI)
docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt中報告最新版本的 Android NDK 中記錄的那些 ABI
- 應使用上游 Android 開源項目中可用的源代碼和頭文件構建
以下本機代碼 API 必須可供包含本機代碼的應用程序使用：
- libc（C 庫）
- 對 C++ 的最小支持
- liblog（Android 日誌記錄）
- libz（Zlib 壓縮）
- libGLESv1_CM.so (OpenGL ES 1.0)
- libGLESv2.so（OpenGL ES 2.0）
- libEGL.so（本機 OpenGL 表面管理）
- libOpenSLES.so（OpenSL ES 1.0.1 音頻支持）
- libOpenMAXAL.so（OpenMAX AL 1.0.1 支持）
- libandroid.so（本機 Android 活動支持）
- 支持 OpenGL，如下所述
請注意，Android NDK 的未來版本可能會引入對其他 ABI 的支持。如果設備實現與現有的預定義 ABI 不兼容，則它絕不能報告對任何 ABI 的支持。
3.4.1. Web 視圖兼容性
Android 開源實現使用 WebKit 渲染引擎來實現
android.webkit.WebView 。因為為 Web 渲染系統開發一個全面的測試套件是不可行的，設備實現者必須在 WebView 實現中使用特定的 WebKit 上游構建。具體來說：
android.webkit.WebView實現必須基於 Android 4.0 的上游 Android 開源樹中的 534.30 WebKit 構建。此版本包括一組特定的 WebView 功能和安全修復程序。設備實現者可以包括對 WebKit 實現的自定義；但是，任何此類自定義不得改變 WebView 的行為，包括呈現行為。
- WebView 報告的用戶代理字符串必須採用以下格式：
Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android $(VERSION); $(LOCALE); $(MODEL) Build/$(BUILD)) AppleWebKit/534.30 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/534.30
- $(VERSION) 字符串的值必須與
- $(LOCALE) 字符串的值應該遵循國家代碼和語言的 ISO 約定，並且應該引用設備當前配置的區域設置
- $(MODEL) 字符串的值必須與
- $(BUILD) 字符串的值必須與
- $(VERSION) 字符串的值必須與
WebView 組件應該包括對盡可能多的 HTML5 [參考資料，11 ] 的支持。至少，設備實現必須支持與 WebView 中的 HTML5 關聯的這些 API 中的每一個：
設備實現必須包括一個獨立的瀏覽器應用程序，供一般用戶瀏覽網頁。獨立瀏覽器可以基於 WebKit 以外的瀏覽器技術。但是，即使使用備用瀏覽器應用程序，提供給第三方應用程序的
android.webkit.WebView組件也必須基於 WebKit，如第 3.4.1 節所述。
獨立的瀏覽器應用程序（無論是基於上游 WebKit 瀏覽器應用程序還是第三方替代品）應該盡可能多地支持 HTML5 [參考資料，11 ]。至少，設備實現必須支持以下與 HTML5 相關的每個 API：
3.5. API 行為兼容性
每種 API 類型（託管、軟件、本機和 Web）的行為必須與上游 Android 開源項目 [參考資料，3 ] 的首選實現一致。一些特定的兼容性領域是：
- 設備不得更改標準 Intent 的行為或語義
上面的列表並不全面。兼容性測試套件 (CTS) 測試平台的重要部分的行為兼容性，但不是全部。實施者有責任確保與 Android 開源項目的行為兼容性。出於這個原因，設備實施者應該盡可能使用通過 Android 開源項目提供的源代碼，而不是重新實施系統的重要部分。
3.6. API 命名空間
Android 遵循 Java 編程語言定義的包和類命名空間約定。為確保與第三方應用程序的兼容性，設備實施者不得對這些包命名空間進行任何禁止的修改（見下文）：
- 設備實現不得通過更改任何方法或類簽名，或者通過刪除類或類字段來修改 Android 平台上公開公開的 API。
- 設備實現者可以修改 API 的底層實現，但此類修改不得影響任何公開 API 的聲明行為和 Java 語言簽名。
- 設備實現者不得向上述 API 添加任何公開公開的元素（例如類或接口，或現有類或接口的字段或方法）。
“公開暴露的元素”是任何未使用上游 Android 源代碼中使用的“@hide”標記修飾的構造。換句話說，設備實現者不得公開新的 API 或更改上述命名空間中的現有 API。設備實施者可以進行僅限內部的修改，但這些修改不得公佈或以其他方式暴露給開發人員。
設備實施者可以添加自定義 API，但任何此類 API 不得位於其他組織擁有或引用的命名空間中。例如，設備實施者不得將 API 添加到 com.google.* 或類似的命名空間；只有谷歌可以這樣做。同樣，Google 不得將 API 添加到其他公司的命名空間。此外，如果設備實現包含標準 Android 命名空間之外的自定義 API，則這些 API 必須打包在 Android 共享庫中，以便只有明確使用它們（通過
如果設備實施者提議改進上述包命名空間之一（例如通過向現有 API 添加有用的新功能，或添加新 API），實施者應該訪問 source.android.com 並開始貢獻更改的過程和代碼，根據該站點上的信息。
請注意，上述限制對應於 Java 編程語言中命名 API 的標準約定；本節的目的只是為了加強這些約定，並通過將它們包含在此兼容性定義中來使其具有約束力。
設備實現必須支持完整的 Dalvik 可執行 (DEX) 字節碼規範和 Dalvik 虛擬機語義 [參考資料，17 ]。
設備實現必須配置 Dalvik 以根據上游 Android 平台分配內存，如下表所示。 （有關屏幕尺寸和屏幕密度定義，請參閱第 7.1.1 節。）
|小/普通/大||ldpi / mdpi||16MB|
|小/普通/大||tvdpi / hdpi||32MB|
|small / normal / large||xhdpi||64MB|
|xlarge||tvdpi / hdpi||64MB|
3.8. User Interface Compatibility
Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose an "AppWidget" to the end user [ Resources, 18 ]. The Android Open Source reference release includes a Launcher application that includes user interface affordances allowing the user to add, view, and remove AppWidgets from the home screen.
Device implementations MAY substitute an alternative to the reference Launcher (ie home screen). Alternative Launchers SHOULD include built-in support for AppWidgets, and expose user interface affordances to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets directly within the Launcher. Alternative Launchers MAY omit these user interface elements; however, if they are omitted, the device implementation MUST provide a separate application accessible from the Launcher that allows users to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets.
Device implementations MUST be capable of rendering widgets that are 4 x 4 in the standard grid size. (See the App Widget Design Guidelines in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 18 ] for details.
Android includes APIs that allow developers to notify users of notable events [ Resources, 19 ], using hardware and software features of the device.
Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware, specifically sound, vibration, and light. Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware. For instance, if a device implementation includes a vibrator, it MUST correctly implement the vibration APIs. If a device implementation lacks hardware, the corresponding APIs MUST be implemented as no-ops. Note that this behavior is further detailed in Section 7.
Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all resources (icons, sound files, etc.) provided for in the APIs [ Resources, 20 ], or in the Status/System Bar icon style guide [ Resources, 21 ]. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.
Android 4.0 includes support for rich notifications, such as interactive Views for ongoing notifications. Device implementations MUST properly display and execute rich notifications, as documented in the Android APIs.
Android includes APIs [ Resources, 22 ] that allow developers to incorporate search into their applications, and expose their application's data into the global system search. Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results. The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps, and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.
Device implementations MUST include a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow developers to reuse this user interface to provide search within their own applications. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode. If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions.
Applications can use the "Toast" API (defined in [ Resources, 23 ]) to display short non-modal strings to the end user, that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.
Android provides "themes" as a mechanism for applications to apply styles across an entire Activity or application. Android 3.0 introduced a new "Holo" or "holographic" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the Holo theme look and feel as defined by the Android SDK [ Resources, 24 ]. Device implementations MUST NOT alter any of the Holo theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].
Android 4.0 introduces a new "Device Default" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the look and feel of the device theme as defined by the device implementer. Device implementations MAY modify the DeviceDefault theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].
3.8.6. Live Wallpapers
Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more "Live Wallpapers" to the end user [ Resources, 26 ]. Live Wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.
Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable framerate with no adverse affects on other applications. If limitations in the hardware cause wallpapers and/or applications to crash, malfunction, consume excessive CPU or battery power, or run at unacceptably low frame rates, the hardware is considered incapable of running live wallpaper. As an example, some live wallpapers may use an Open GL 1.0 or 2.0 context to render their content. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.
Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers. Device implementations determined to not run live wallpapers reliably as described above MUST NOT implement live wallpapers.
3.8.7. Recent Application Display
The upstream Android 4.0 source code includes a user interface for displaying recent applications using a thumbnail image of the application's graphical state at the moment the user last left the application. Device implementations MAY alter or eliminate this user interface; however, a future version of Android is planned to make more extensive use of this functionality. Device implementations are strongly encouraged to use the upstream Android 4.0 user interface (or a similar thumbnail-based interface) for recent applications, or else they may not be compatible with a future version of Android.
3.8.8. Input Management Settings
Android 4.0 includes support for Input Management Engines. The Android 4.0 APIs allow custom app IMEs to specify user-tunable settings. Device implementations MUST include a way for the user to access IME settings at all times when an IME that provides such user settings is displayed.
3.9 Device Administration
Android 4.0 includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the Android Device Administration API [ Resources, 27 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the
DevicePolicyManager class [ Resources, 28 ], and SHOULD support the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 27 ].
If device implementations do not support the full range of device administration policies, they MUST NOT allow device administration applications to be enabled. Specifically, if a device does not support all device administration policies, the device implementation MUST respond to the
android.app.admin.DevicePolicyManager.ACTION_ADD_DEVICE_ADMIN intent, but MUST display a message notifying the user that the device does not support device administration.
Android 4.0 provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. In addition, Android 4.0 provides platform APIs that enable accessibility service implementations to receive callbacks for user and system events and generate alternate feedback mechanisms, such as text-to-speech, haptic feedback, and trackball/d-pad navigation [ Resources, 29 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the Android accessibility framework consistent with the default Android implementation. Specifically, device implementations MUST meet the following requirements.
- Device implementations MUST support third party accessibility service implementations through the
android.accessibilityserviceAPIs [ Resources, 30 ].
- Device implementations MUST generate
AccessibilityEvents and deliver these events to all registered
AccessibilityServiceimplementations in a manner consistent with the default Android implementation.
- Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the
Additionally, device implementations SHOULD provide an implementation of an accessibility service on the device, and SHOULD provide a mechanism for users to enable the accessibility service during device setup. An open source implementation of an accessibility service is available from the Eyes Free project [ Resources, 31 ].
Android 4.0 includes APIs that allow applications to make use of text-to-speech (TTS) services, and allows service providers to provide implementations of TTS services [ Resources, 32 ]. Device implementations MUST meet these requirements related to the Android TTS framework:
- Device implementations MUST support the Android TTS framework APIs and SHOULD include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device. Note that the upstream Android open source software includes a full-featured TTS engine implementation.
- Device implementations MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
- Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible interface that allows users to select a TTS engine for use at the system level.
4. Application Packaging Compatibility
Device implementations MUST install and run Android ".apk" files as generated by the "aapt" tool included in the official Android SDK [ Resources, 33 ].
Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the .apk [ Resources, 34 ], Android Manifest [ Resources, 35 ], Dalvik bytecode [ Resources, 17 ], or renderscript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices. Device implementers SHOULD use the reference upstream implementation of Dalvik, and the reference implementation's package management system.
5. Multimedia Compatibility
Device implementations MUST include at least one form of audio output, such as speakers, headphone jack, external speaker connection, etc.
5.1. Media Codecs
Device implementations MUST support the core media formats specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ] except where explicitly permitted in this document. Specifically, device implementations MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types and container formats defined in the tables below. All of these codecs are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.
Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are unencumbered by third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.
Note that these tables do not list specific bitrate requirements for most video codecs because current device hardware does not necessarily support bitrates that map exactly to the required bitrates specified by the relevant standards. Instead, device implementations SHOULD support the highest bitrate practical on the hardware, up to the limits defined by the specifications.
|Type||Format / Codec||Encoder||Decoder||Details||File Type(s) / Container Formats|
|Audio||AAC LC/LTP|| REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||Mono/Stereo content in any combination of standard bit rates up to 160 kbps and sampling rates from 8 to 48kHz|
|HE-AACv2 (enhanced AAC+)||REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8kHz||3GPP (.3gp)|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16kHz||3GPP (.3gp)|
|Mono/Stereo (no multichannel). Sample rates up to 48 kHz (but up to 44.1 kHz is recommended on devices with 44.1 kHz output, as the 48 to 44.1 kHz downsampler does not include a low-pass filter). 16-bit recommended; no dither applied for 24-bit.||FLAC (.flac) only|
|MP3||REQUIRED||Mono/Stereo 8-320Kbps constant (CBR) or variable bit-rate (VBR)||MP3 (.mp3)|
|MIDI||REQUIRED||MIDI Type 0 and 1. DLS Version 1 and 2. XMF and Mobile XMF. Support for ringtone formats RTTTL/RTX, OTA, and iMelody|
|PCM/WAVE||REQUIRED||8- and 16-bit linear PCM (rates up to limit of hardware)||WAVE (.wav)|
Required for device implementations that include camera hardware and define
|H.264 AVC|| REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include camera hardware and define
|REQUIRED||Baseline Profile (BP)|
|MPEG-4 SP||REQUIRED||3GPP (.3gp)|
|WebM (.webm) and Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)|
5.2 Video Encoding
Android device implementations that include a rear-facing camera and declare
android.hardware.camera SHOULD support the following video encoding profiles.
|SD (Low quality)||SD (High quality)||HD (When supported by hardware)|
|Video codec||H.264 Baseline Profile||H.264 Baseline Profile||H.264 Baseline Profile|
|Video resolution||176 x 144 px||480 x 360 px||1280 x 720 px|
|Video frame rate||12 fps||30 fps||30 fps|
|Video bitrate||56 Kbps||500 Kbps or higher||2 Mbps or higher|
|Audio channels||1 (mono)||2 (stereo)||2 (stereo)|
|Audio bitrate||24 Kbps||128 Kbps||192 Kbps|
5.3. Audio Recording
When an application has used the
android.media.AudioRecord API to start recording an audio stream, device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare
android.hardware.microphone MUST sample and record audio with each of these behaviors:
- The device SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude versus frequency characteristics; specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz
- Audio input sensitivity SHOULD be set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL) source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 2500 for 16-bit samples.
- PCM amplitude levels SHOULD linearly track input SPL changes over at least a 30 dB range from -18 dB to +12 dB re 90 dB SPL at the microphone.
- Total harmonic distortion SHOULD be less than 1% from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz at 90 dB SPL input level.
In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the
android.media.MediaRecorder.AudioSource.VOICE_RECOGNITION audio source:
- Noise reduction processing, if present, MUST be disabled.
- Automatic gain control, if present, MUST be disabled.
Note: while some of the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.
5.4. Audio Latency
Audio latency is broadly defined as the interval between when an application requests an audio playback or record operation, and when the device implementation actually begins the operation. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time effects such sound effects or VOIP communication. Device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare
android.hardware.microphone SHOULD meet all audio latency requirements outlined in this section. See Section 7 for details on the conditions under which microphone hardware may be omitted by device implementations.
For the purposes of this section:
- "cold output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been idle and powered down prior to the request
- "warm output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been recently used but is currently idle (that is, silent)
- "continuous output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application issues a sample to be played and when the speaker physically plays the corresponding sound, while the device is currently playing back audio
- "cold input latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio recording and when the first sample is delivered to the application via its callback, when the audio system and microphone has been idle and powered down prior to the request
- "continuous input latency" is defined to be when an ambient sound occurs and when the sample corresponding to that sound is delivered to a recording application via its callback, while the device is in recording mode
Using the above definitions, device implementations SHOULD exhibit each of these properties:
- cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less
- warm output latency of 10 milliseconds or less
- continuous output latency of 45 milliseconds or less
- cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less
- continuous input latency of 50 milliseconds or less
Note: while the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.
If a device implementation meets the requirements of this section, it MAY report support for low-latency audio, by reporting the feature "android.hardware.audio.low-latency" via the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ] Conversely, if the device implementation does not meet these requirements it MUST NOT report support for low-latency audio.
5.5. Network Protocols
Devices MUST support the media network protocols for audio and video playback as specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ]. Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:
- RTSP (RTP, SDP)
- HTTP(S) progressive streaming
- HTTP(S) Live Streaming draft protocol, Version 3 [ Resources, 59 ]
6. Developer Tool Compatibility
Device implementations MUST support the Android Developer Tools provided in the Android SDK. Specifically, Android-compatible devices MUST be compatible with:
- Android Debug Bridge (known as adb) [ Resources, 33 ]
Device implementations MUST support all
adbfunctions as documented in the Android SDK. The device-side
adbdaemon MUST be inactive by default, and there MUST be a user-accessible mechanism to turn on the Android Debug Bridge.
- Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (known as ddms) [ Resources, 33 ]
Device implementations MUST support all
ddmsfeatures as documented in the Android SDK. As
adb, support for
ddmsSHOULD be inactive by default, but MUST be supported whenever the user has activated the Android Debug Bridge, as above.
- Monkey [ Resources, 36 ]
Device implementations MUST include the Monkey framework, and make it available for applications to use.
Most Linux-based systems and Apple Macintosh systems recognize Android devices using the standard Android SDK tools, without additional support; however Microsoft Windows systems typically require a driver for new Android devices. (For instance, new vendor IDs and sometimes new device IDs require custom USB drivers for Windows systems.) If a device implementation is unrecognized by the
adb tool as provided in the standard Android SDK, device implementers MUST provide Windows drivers allowing developers to connect to the device using the
adb protocol. These drivers MUST be provided for Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
7. Hardware Compatibility
If a device includes a particular hardware component that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:
- complete class definitions (as documented by the SDK) for the component's APIs MUST still be present
- the API's behaviors MUST be implemented as no-ops in some reasonable fashion
- API methods MUST return null values where permitted by the SDK documentation
- API methods MUST return no-op implementations of classes where null values are not permitted by the SDK documentation
- API methods MUST NOT throw exceptions not documented by the SDK documentation
A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.
Device implementations MUST accurately report accurate hardware configuration information via the
hasSystemFeature(String) methods on the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ]
7.1. Display and Graphics
Android 4.0 includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device, to ensure that third-party applications run well on a variety of hardware configurations [ Resources, 38 ]. Devices MUST properly implement these APIs and behaviors, as detailed in this section.
The units referenced by the requirements in this section are defined as follows:
- "Physical diagonal size" is the distance in inches between two opposing corners of the illuminated portion of the display.
- "dpi" (meaning "dots per inch") is the number of pixels encompassed by a linear horizontal or vertical span of 1". Where dpi values are listed, both horizontal and vertical dpi must fall within the range.
- "Aspect ratio" is the ratio of the longer dimension of the screen to the shorter dimension. For example, a display of 480x854 pixels would be 854 / 480 = 1.779, or roughly "16:9".
- A "density-independent pixel" or ("dp") is the virtual pixel unit normalized to a 160 dpi screen, calculated as:
pixels = dps * (density / 160).
7.1.1. Screen Configuration
The Android UI framework supports a variety of different screen sizes, and allows applications to query the device screen size (aka "screen layout") via
android.content.res.Configuration.screenLayout with the
SCREENLAYOUT_SIZE_MASK . Device implementations MUST report the correct screen size as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 38 ] and determined by the upstream Android platform. Specifically, device implementations must report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel (dp) screen dimensions.
- Devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 426 dp x 320 dp ('small')
- Devices that report screen size 'normal' MUST have screen sizes of at least 470 dp x 320 dp
- Devices that report screen size 'large' MUST have screen sizes of at least 640 dp x 480 dp
- Devices that report screen size 'xlarge' MUST have screen sizes of at least 960 dp x 720 dp
In addition, devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 2.5 inches in physical diagonal size.
Devices MUST NOT change their reported screen size at any time.
Applications optionally indicate which screen sizes they support via the
<supports-screens> attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications' stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.
Screen Aspect Ratio
The aspect ratio MUST be between 1.3333 (4:3) and 1.85 (16:9).
The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report one of the following logical Android framework densities through the
android.util.DisplayMetrics APIs, and MUST execute applications at this standard density.
- 120 dpi, known as 'ldpi'
- 160 dpi, known as 'mdpi'
- 213 dpi, known as 'tvdpi'
- 240 dpi, known as 'hdpi'
- 320 dpi, known as 'xhdpi'
7.1.2. Display Metrics
Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in
android.util.DisplayMetrics [ Resources, 39 ].
7.1.3. Screen Orientation
Devices MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. That is, the device must respect the application's request for a specific screen orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default.
Devices MUST report the correct value for the device's current orientation, whenever queried via the android.content.res.Configuration.orientation, android.view.Display.getOrientation(), or other APIs.
Devices MUST NOT change the reported screen size or density when changing orientation.
Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support (
android.hardware.screen.landscape ) and MUST report at least one supported orientation. For example, a device with a fixed-orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, MUST only report
7.1.4. 2D and 3D Graphics Acceleration
Device implementations MUST support both OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0, as embodied and detailed in the Android SDK documentations. Device implementations MUST also support Android Renderscript, as detailed in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 8 ].
Device implementations MUST also correctly identify themselves as supporting OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0. That is:
- The managed APIs (such as via the
GLES10.getString()method) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0
- The native C/C++ OpenGL APIs (that is, those available to apps via libGLES_v1CM.so, libGLES_v2.so, or libEGL.so) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0.
Device implementations MAY implement any desired OpenGL ES extensions. However, device implementations MUST report via the OpenGL ES managed and native APIs all extension strings that they do support, and conversely MUST NOT report extension strings that they do not support.
Note that Android 4.0 includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android 4.0 to implement any specific texture compression format. However, they SHOULD accurately report any texture compression formats that they do support, via the
getString() method in the OpenGL API.
Android 3.0 introduced a mechanism for applications to declare that they wanted to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window or View level through the use of a manifest tag
android:hardwareAccelerated or direct API calls [ Resources, 9 ].
In Android 4.0, device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting
android:hardwareAccelerated="false" or disabling hardware acceleration directly through the Android View APIs.
In addition, device implementations MUST exhibit behavior consistent with the Android SDK documentation on hardware acceleration [ Resources, 9 ].
Android 4.0 includes a
TextureView object that lets developers directly integrate hardware-accelerated OpenGL ES textures as rendering targets in a UI hierarchy. Device implementations MUST support the
TextureView API, and MUST exhibit consistent behavior with the upstream Android implementation.
7.1.5. Legacy Application Compatibility Mode
Android 4.0 specifies a "compatibility mode" in which the framework operates in an 'normal' screen size equivalent (320dp width) mode for the benefit of legacy applications not developed for old versions of Android that pre-date screen-size independence. Device implementations MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.
7.1.6. Screen Types
Device implementation screens are classified as one of two types:
- Fixed-pixel display implementations: the screen is a single panel that supports only a single pixel width and height. Typically the screen is physically integrated with the device. Examples include mobile phones, tablets, and so on.
- Variable-pixel display implementations: the device implementation either has no embedded screen and includes a video output port such as VGA or HDMI for display, or has an embedded screen that can change pixel dimensions. Examples include televisions, set-top boxes, and so on.
Fixed-Pixel Device Implementations
Fixed-pixel device implementations MAY use screens of any pixel dimensions, provided that they meet the requirements defined this Compatibility Definition.
Fixed-pixel implementations MAY include a video output port for use with an external display. However, if that display is ever used for running apps, the device MUST meet the following requirements:
- The device MUST report the same screen configuration and display metrics, as detailed in Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2, as the fixed-pixel display.
- The device MUST report the same logical density as the fixed-pixel display.
- The device MUST report screen dimensions that are the same as, or very close to, the fixed-pixel display.
For example, a tablet that is 7" diagonal size with a 1024x600 pixel resolution is considered a fixed-pixel large mdpi display implementation. If it contains a video output port that displays at 720p or 1080p, the device implementation MUST scale the output so that applications are only executed in a large mdpi window, regardless of whether the fixed-pixel display or video output port is in use.
Variable-Pixel Device Implementations
Variable-pixel device implementations MUST support one or both of 1280x720, or 1920x1080 (that is, 720p or 1080p). Device implementations with variable-pixel displays MUST NOT support any other screen configuration or mode. Device implementations with variable-pixel screens MAY change screen configuration or mode at runtime or boot-time. For example, a user of a set-top box may replace a 720p display with a 1080p display, and the device implementation may adjust accordingly.
Additionally, variable-pixel device implementations MUST report the following configuration buckets for these pixel dimensions:
- 1280x720 (also known as 720p): 'large' screen size, 'tvdpi' (213 dpi) density
- 1920x1080 (also known as 1080p): 'large' screen size, 'xhdpi' (320 dpi) density
For clarity, device implementations with variable pixel dimensions are restricted to 720p or 1080p in Android 4.0, and MUST be configured to report screen size and density buckets as noted above.
7.1.7. Screen Technology
The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Devices MUST support all of these APIs as defined by the Android SDK unless specifically allowed in this document. Specifically:
- Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering 16-bit color graphics and SHOULD support displays capable of 24-bit color graphics.
- Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering animations.
- The display technology used MUST have a pixel aspect ratio (PAR) between 0.9 and 1.1. That is, the pixel aspect ratio MUST be near square (1.0) with a 10% tolerance.
7.2. Input Devices
- MUST include support for the Input Management Framework (which allows third party developers to create Input Management Engines - ie soft keyboard) as detailed at http://developer.android.com
- MUST provide at least one soft keyboard implementation (regardless of whether a hard keyboard is present)
- MAY include additional soft keyboard implementations
- MAY include a hardware keyboard
- MUST NOT include a hardware keyboard that does not match one of the formats specified in
android.content.res.Configuration.keyboard[ Resources, 40 ] (that is, QWERTY, or 12-key)
7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation
- MAY omit a non-touch navigation option (that is, may omit a trackball, d-pad, or wheel)
- MUST report the correct value for
android.content.res.Configuration.navigation[ Resources, 40 ]
- MUST provide a reasonable alternative user interface mechanism for the selection and editing of text, compatible with Input Management Engines. The upstream Android open source software includes a selection mechanism suitable for use with devices that lack non-touch navigation inputs.
7.2.3. Navigation keys
The Home, Menu and Back functions are essential to the Android navigation paradigm. Device implementations MUST make these functions available to the user at all times when running applications. These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons (such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons), or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys, gestures, touch panel, etc. Android 4.0 supports both implementations.
Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:
- Device implementation navigation keys MUST use a distinct portion of the screen, not available to applications, and MUST NOT obscure or otherwise interfere with the portion of the screen available to applications.
- Device implementations MUST make available a portion of the display to applications that meets the requirements defined in Section 7.1.1 .
- Device implementations MUST display the navigation keys when applications do not specify a system UI mode, or specify
- Device implementations MUST present the navigation keys in an unobtrusive "low profile" (eg. dimmed) mode when applications specify
- Device implementations MUST hide the navigation keys when applications specify
- Device implementation MUST present a Menu key to applications when targetSdkVersion <= 10 and SHOULD NOT present a Menu key when the targetSdkVersion > 10.
7.2.4. Touchscreen input
- MUST have a pointer input system of some kind (either mouse-like, or touch)
- MAY have a touchscreen of any modality (such as capacitive or resistive)
- SHOULD support fully independently tracked pointers, if a touchscreen supports multiple pointers
- MUST report the value of
android.content.res.Configuration.touchscreen[ Resources, 40 ] corresponding to the type of the specific touchscreen on the device
Android 4.0 includes support for a variety of touch screens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Touch screen based device implementations are associated with a display [ Resources, 61 ] such that the user has the impression of directly manipulating items on screen. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated. In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click. Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions. Android 4.0 includes the feature constant
android.hardware.faketouch , which corresponds to a high-fidelity non-touch (that is, pointer-based) input device such as a mouse or trackpad that can adequately emulate touch-based input (including basic gesture support), and indicates that the device supports an emulated subset of touchscreen functionality. Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .
Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used. Device implementations that include a touchscreen (single-touch or better) MUST also report the platform feature constant
android.hardware.faketouch . Device implementations that do not include a touchscreen (and rely on a pointer device only) MUST NOT report any touchscreen feature, and MUST report only
android.hardware.faketouch if they meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .
7.2.5. Fake touch input
Device implementations that declare support for
- MUST report the absolute X and Y screen positions of the pointer location and display a visual pointer on the screen[ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST report touch event with the action code [ Resources, 60 ] that specifies the state change that occurs on the pointer going
upon the screen [ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST support pointer
upon an object on the screen, which allows users to emulate tap on an object on the screen
- MUST support pointer
upin the same place on an object on the screen within a time threshold, which allows users to emulate double tap on an object on the screen [ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST support pointer
downon an arbitrary point on the screen, pointer move to any other arbitrary point on the screen, followed by a pointer
up, which allows users to emulate a touch drag
- MUST support pointer
downthen allow users to quickly move the object to a different position on the screen and then pointer
upon the screen, which allows users to fling an object on the screen
Devices that declare support for
android.hardware.faketouch.multitouch.distinct MUST meet the requirements for faketouch above, and MUST also support distinct tracking of two or more independent pointer inputs.
Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. However, if a device implementation omits a microphone, it MUST NOT report the
android.hardware.microphone feature constant, and must implement the audio recording API as no-ops, per Section 7 . Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:
- MUST report the
- SHOULD meet the audio quality requirements in Section 5.3
- SHOULD meet the audio latency requirements in Section 5.4
Android 4.0 includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections. If a device includes a particular sensor type that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. For example, device implementations:
- MUST accurately report the presence or absence of sensors per the
android.content.pm.PackageManagerclass. [ Resources, 37 ]
- MUST return an accurate list of supported sensors via the
SensorManager.getSensorList()and similar methods
- MUST behave reasonably for all other sensor APIs (for example, by returning true or false as appropriate when applications attempt to register listeners, not calling sensor listeners when the corresponding sensors are not present; etc.)
- MUST report all sensor measurements using the relevant International System of Units (ie metric) values for each sensor type as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 41 ]
The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK is to be considered authoritative.
Some sensor types are synthetic, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. (Examples include the orientation sensor, and the linear acceleration sensor.) Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors.
The Android 4.0 APIs introduce a notion of a "streaming" sensor, which is one that returns data continuously, rather than only when the data changes. Device implementations MUST continuously provide periodic data samples for any API indicated by the Android 4.0 SDK documentation to be a streaming sensor.
Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis accelerometer. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 50 Hz or greater
- MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ])
- MUST be capable of measuring from freefall up to twice gravity (2g) or more on any three-dimensional vector
- MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.05 m/s^2
Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis magnetometer (ie compass.) If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 10 Hz or greater
- MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ]).
- MUST be capable of sampling a range of field strengths adequate to cover the geomagnetic field
- MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.5 µT
Device implementations SHOULD include a GPS receiver. If a device implementation does include a GPS receiver, it SHOULD include some form of "assisted GPS" technique to minimize GPS lock-on time.
Device implementations SHOULD include a gyroscope (ie angular change sensor.) Devices SHOULD NOT include a gyroscope sensor unless a 3-axis accelerometer is also included. If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:
- MUST be temperature compensated
- MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 5.5*Pi radians/second (that is, approximately 1,000 degrees per second)
- MUST be able to deliver events at 100 Hz or greater
- MUST have 12-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a variance no greater than 1e-7 rad^2 / s^2 per Hz (variance per Hz, or rad^2 / s). The variance is allowed to vary with the sampling rate, but must be constrained by this value. In other words, if you measure the variance of the gyro at 1 Hz sampling rate it should be no greater than 1e-7 rad^2/s^2.
- MUST have timestamps as close to when the hardware event happened as possible. The constant latency must be removed.
Device implementations MAY include a barometer (ie ambient air pressure sensor.) If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 5 Hz or greater
- MUST have adequate precision to enable estimating altitude
Device implementations MAY but SHOULD NOT include a thermometer (ie temperature sensor.) If a device implementation does include a thermometer, it MUST measure the temperature of the device CPU. It MUST NOT measure any other temperature. (Note that this sensor type is deprecated in the Android 4.0 APIs.)
Device implementations MAY include a photometer (ie ambient light sensor.)
7.3.8. Proximity Sensor
Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it MUST measure the proximity of an object in the same direction as the screen. That is, the proximity sensor MUST be oriented to detect objects close to the screen, as the primary intent of this sensor type is to detect a phone in use by the user. If a device implementation includes a proximity sensor with any other orientation, it MUST NOT be accessible through this API. If a device implementation has a proximity sensor, it MUST be have 1-bit of accuracy or more.
7.4. Data Connectivity
"Telephony" as used by the Android 4.0 APIs and this document refers specifically to hardware related to placing voice calls and sending SMS messages via a GSM or CDMA network. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android 4.0 considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network. In other words, the Android "telephony" functionality and APIs refer specifically to voice calls and SMS; for instance, device implementations that cannot place calls or send/receive SMS messages MUST NOT report the "android.hardware.telephony" feature or any sub-features, regardless of whether they use a cellular network for data connectivity.
Android 4.0 MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android 4.0 is compatible with devices that are not phones. However, if a device implementation does include GSM or CDMA telephony, it MUST implement full support for the API for that technology. Device implementations that do not include telephony hardware MUST implement the full APIs as no-ops.
7.4.2. IEEE 802.11 (WiFi)
Android 4.0 device implementations SHOULD include support for one or more forms of 802.11 (b/g/a/n, etc.) If a device implementation does include support for 802.11, it MUST implement the corresponding Android API.
Device implementations SHOULD include a Bluetooth transceiver. Device implementations that do include a Bluetooth transceiver MUST enable the RFCOMM-based Bluetooth API as described in the SDK documentation [ Resources, 42 ]. Device implementations SHOULD implement relevant Bluetooth profiles, such as A2DP, AVRCP, OBEX, etc. as appropriate for the device.
The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-driven Bluetooth test procedure described in Appendix A.
7.4.4. Near-Field Communications
Device implementations SHOULD include a transceiver and related hardware for Near-Field Communications (NFC). If a device implementation does include NFC hardware, then it:
- MUST report the android.hardware.nfc feature from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()method. [ Resources, 37 ]
- MUST be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards:
- MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
- NfcA (ISO14443-3A)
- NfcB (ISO14443-3B)
- NfcF (JIS 6319-4)
- IsoDep (ISO 14443-4)
- NFC Forum Tag Types 1, 2, 3, 4 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
- SHOULD be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards. Note that while the NFC standards below are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these stanards are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required in future versions. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases.
- NfcV (ISO 15693)
- MUST be capable of transmitting and receiving data via the following peer-to-peer standards and protocols:
- ISO 18092
- LLCP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- SDP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- NDEF Push Protocol [ Resources, 43 ]
- SNEP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- MUST include support for Android Beam:
- MUST implement the SNEP default server. Valid NDEF messages received by the default SNEP server MUST be dispatched to applications using the android.nfc.ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED intent. Disabling Android Beam in settings MUST NOT disable dispatch of incoming NDEF message.
- MUST implement the NPP server. Messages received by the NPP server MUST be processed the same way as the SNEP default server.
- MUST implement a SNEP client and attempt to send outbound P2P NDEF to the default SNEP server when Android Beam is enabled. If no default SNEP server is found then the client MUST attempt to send to an NPP server.
- MUST allow foreground activities to set the outbound P2P NDEF message using android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessage, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessageCallback, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.enableForegroundNdefPush.
- SHOULD use a gesture or on-screen confirmation, such as 'Touch to Beam', before sending outbound P2P NDEF messages.
- SHOULD enable Android Beam by default
- MUST poll for all supported technologies while in NFC discovery mode.
- SHOULD be in NFC discovery mode while the device is awake with the screen active and the lock-screen unlocked.
(Note that publicly available links are not available for the JIS, ISO, and NFC Forum specifications cited above.)
Additionally, device implementations MAY include reader/writer support for the following MIFARE technologies.
- MIFARE Classic (NXP MF1S503x [ Resources, 44 ], MF1S703x [ Resources, 44 ])
- MIFARE Ultralight (NXP MF0ICU1 [ Resources, 46 ], MF0ICU2 [ Resources, 46 ])
- NDEF on MIFARE Classic (NXP AN130511 [ Resources, 48 ], AN130411 [ Resources, 49 ])
Note that Android 4.0 includes APIs for these MIFARE types. If a device implementation supports MIFARE in the reader/writer role, it:
- MUST implement the corresponding Android APIs as documented by the Android SDK
- MUST report the feature com.nxp.mifare from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()method. [ Resources, 37 ] Note that this is not a standard Android feature, and as such does not appear as a constant on the
- MUST NOT implement the corresponding Android APIs nor report the com.nxp.mifare feature unless it also implements general NFC support as described in this section
If a device implementation does not include NFC hardware, it MUST NOT declare the android.hardware.nfc feature from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method [ Resources, 37 ], and MUST implement the Android 4.0 NFC API as a no-op.
As the classes
android.nfc.NdefRecord represent a protocol-independent data representation format, device implementations MUST implement these APIs even if they do not include support for NFC or declare the android.hardware.nfc feature.
7.4.5. Minimum Network Capability
Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Specifically, device implementations MUST include support for at least one data standard capable of 200Kbit/sec or greater. Examples of technologies that satisfy this requirement include EDGE, HSPA, EV-DO, 802.11g, Ethernet, etc.
Device implementations where a physical networking standard (such as Ethernet) is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as 802.11 (WiFi).
Devices MAY implement more than one form of data connectivity.
Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera, and MAY include a front-facing camera. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera. A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.
7.5.1. Rear-Facing Camera
Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a rear-facing camera, it:
- MUST have a resolution of at least 2 megapixels
- SHOULD have either hardware auto-focus, or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver (transparent to application software)
- MAY have fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware
- MAY include a flash. If the Camera includes a flash, the flash lamp MUST NOT be lit while an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance has been registered on a Camera preview surface, unless the application has explicitly enabled the flash by enabling the
FLASH_MODE_ONattributes of a
Camera.Parametersobject. Note that this constraint does not apply to the device's built-in system camera application, but only to third-party applications using
7.5.2. Front-Facing Camera
Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a front-facing camera, it:
- MUST have a resolution of at least VGA (that is, 640x480 pixels)
- MUST NOT use a front-facing camera as the default for the Camera API. That is, the camera API in Android 4.0 has specific support for front-facing cameras, and device implementations MUST NOT configure the API to to treat a front-facing camera as the default rear-facing camera, even if it is the only camera on the device.
- MAY include features (such as auto-focus, flash, etc.) available to rear-facing cameras as described in Section 7.5.1.
- MUST horizontally reflect (ie mirror) the stream displayed by an app in a CameraPreview, as follows:
- If the device implementation is capable of being rotated by user (such as automatically via an accelerometer or manually via user input), the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the device's current orientation.
- If the current application has explicitly requested that the Camera display be rotated via a call to the
android.hardware.Camera.setDisplayOrientation()[ Resources, 50 ] method, the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the orientation specified by the application.
- Otherwise, the preview MUST be mirrored along the device's default horizontal axis.
- MUST mirror the image displayed by the postview in the same manner as the camera preview image stream. (If the device implementation does not support postview, this requirement obviously does not apply.)
- MUST NOT mirror the final captured still image or video streams returned to application callbacks or committed to media storage
7.5.3. Camera API Behavior
Device implementations MUST implement the following behaviors for the camera-related APIs, for both front- and rear-facing cameras:
- If an application has never called
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters.setPreviewFormat(int), then the device MUST use
android.hardware.PixelFormat.YCbCr_420_SPfor preview data provided to application callbacks.
- If an application registers an
android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallbackinstance and the system calls the
onPreviewFrame()method when the preview format is YCbCr_420_SP, the data in the
onPreviewFrame()must further be in the NV21 encoding format. That is, NV21 MUST be the default.
- Device implementations MUST support the YV12 format (as denoted by the
android.graphics.ImageFormat.YV12constant) for camera previews for both front- and rear-facing cameras. (The hardware video decoder and camera may use any native pixel format, but the device implementation MUST support conversion to YV12.)
Device implementations MUST implement the full Camera API included in the Android 4.0 SDK documentation [ Resources, 51 ]), regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities. For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered
android.hardware.Camera.AutoFocusCallback instances (even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera.) Note that this does apply to front-facing cameras; for instance, even though most front-facing cameras do not support autofocus, the API callbacks must still be "faked" as described.
Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature. If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Conversely, Device implementations MUST NOT honor or recognize string constants passed to the
android.hardware.Camera.setParameters() method other than those documented as constants on the
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters . That is, device implementations MUST support all standard Camera parameters if the hardware allows, and MUST NOT support custom Camera parameter types.
Device implementations MUST broadcast the
Camera.ACTION_NEW_PICTURE intent whenever a new picture is taken by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.
Device implementations MUST broadcast the
Camera.ACTION_NEW_VIDEO intent whenever a new video is recorded by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.
7.5.4. Camera Orientation
Both front- and rear-facing cameras, if present, MUST be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the screen's long dimension. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation. This applies regardless of the device's natural orientation; that is, it applies to landscape-primary devices as well as portrait-primary devices.
7.6. Memory and Storage
7.6.1. Minimum Memory and Storage
Device implementations MUST have at least 340MB of memory available to the kernel and userspace. The 340MB MUST be in addition to any memory dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that is not under the kernel's control.
Device implementations MUST have at least 350MB of non-volatile storage available for application private data. That is, the
/data partition MUST be at least 350MB.
The Android APIs include a Download Manager that applications may use to download data files [ Resources, 56 ]. The device implementation of the Download Manager MUST be capable of downloading individual files of at least 100MB in size to the default "cache" location.
7.6.2. Application Shared Storage
Device implementations MUST offer shared storage for applications. The shared storage provided MUST be at least 1GB in size.
Device implementations MUST be configured with shared storage mounted by default, "out of the box". If the shared storage is not mounted on the Linux path
/sdcard , then the device MUST include a Linux symbolic link from
/sdcard to the actual mount point.
Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the
android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission on this shared storage. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission.
Device implementations MAY have hardware for user-accessible removable storage, such as a Secure Digital card. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage for apps.
Regardless of the form of shared storage used, device implementations MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer, such as USB mass storage (UMS) or Media Transfer Protocol (MTP). Device implementations MAY use USB mass storage, but SHOULD use Media Transfer Protocol. If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol:
- The device implementation SHOULD be compatible with the reference Android MTP host, Android File Transfer [ Resources, 57 ].
- The device implementation SHOULD report a USB device class of
- The device implementation SHOULD report a USB interface name of 'MTP'.
If the device implementation lacks USB ports, it MUST provide a host computer with access to the contents of shared storage by some other means, such as a network file system.
It is illustrative to consider two common examples. If a device implementation includes an SD card slot to satisfy the shared storage requirement, a FAT-formatted SD card 1GB in size or larger MUST be included with the device as sold to users, and MUST be mounted by default. Alternatively, if a device implementation uses internal fixed storage to satisfy this requirement, that storage MUST be 1GB in size or larger and mounted on
/sdcard MUST be a symbolic link to the physical location if it is mounted elsewhere.)
Device implementations that include multiple shared storage paths (such as both an SD card slot and shared internal storage) SHOULD modify the core applications such as the media scanner and ContentProvider to transparently support files placed in both locations.
Device implementations SHOULD include a USB client port, and SHOULD include a USB host port.
If a device implementation includes a USB client port:
- the port MUST be connectable to a USB host with a standard USB-A port
- the port SHOULD use the micro USB form factor on the device side
- it MUST allow a host connected to the device to access the contents of the shared storage volume using either USB mass storage or Media Transfer Protocol
- it MUST implement the Android Open Accessory API and specification as documented in the Android SDK documentation, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature
android.hardware.usb.accessory[ Resources, 51 ]
If a device implementation includes a USB host port:
- it MAY use a non-standard port form factor, but if so MUST ship with a cable or cables adapting the port to standard USB-A
- it MUST implement the Android USB host API as documented in the Android SDK, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature
android.hardware.usb.host[ Resources, 52 ]
Device implementations MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge. If a device implementation omits a USB client port, it MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge via local-area network (such as Ethernet or 802.11)
8. Performance Compatibility
Device implementations MUST meet the key performance metrics of an Android 4.0 compatible device defined in the table below:
|Application Launch Time|| The following applications should launch within the specified time.||The launch time is measured as the total time to complete loading the default activity for the application, including the time it takes to start the Linux process, load the Android package into the Dalvik VM, and call onCreate.|
|Simultaneous Applications||When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched must take less than the original launch time.|
9. Security Model Compatibility
Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in Security and Permissions reference document in the APIs [ Resources, 54 ] in the Android developer documentation. Device implementations MUST support installation of self-signed applications without requiring any additional permissions/certificates from any third parties/authorities. Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow sub-sections.
Device implementations MUST support the Android permissions model as defined in the Android developer documentation [ Resources, 54 ]. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored. Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android.* namespace.
9.2. UID and Process Isolation
Device implementations MUST support the Android application sandbox model, in which each application runs as a unique Unix-style UID and in a separate process. Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].
9.3. Filesystem Permissions
Device implementations MUST support the Android file access permissions model as defined in as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].
9.4. Alternate Execution Environments
Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik virtual machine or native code. However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.
Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in Section 9.
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be granted access to resources protected by permissions not requested in the runtime's AndroidManifest.xml file via the
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT permit applications to make use of features protected by Android permissions restricted to system applications.
Alternate runtimes MUST abide by the Android sandbox model. Specifically:
- Alternate runtimes SHOULD install apps via the PackageManager into separate Android sandboxes (that is, Linux user IDs, etc.)
- Alternate runtimes MAY provide a single Android sandbox shared by all applications using the alternate runtime.
- Alternate runtimes and installed applications using an alternate runtime MUST NOT reuse the sandbox of any other app installed on the device, except through the standard Android mechanisms of shared user ID and signing certificate
- Alternate runtimes MUST NOT launch with, grant, or be granted access to the sandboxes corresponding to other Android applications.
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be launched with, be granted, or grant to other applications any privileges of the superuser (root), or of any other user ID.
The .apk files of alternate runtimes MAY be included in the system image of a device implementation, but MUST be signed with a key distinct from the key used to sign other applications included with the device implementation.
When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application. That is, if an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission (such as Camera, GPS, etc.), the alternate runtime MUST inform the user that the application will be able to access that resource. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.
10. Software Compatibility Testing
Device implementations MUST pass all tests described in this section.
However, note that no software test package is fully comprehensive. For this reason, device implementers are very strongly encouraged to make the minimum number of changes as possible to the reference and preferred implementation of Android 4.0 available from the Android Open Source Project. This will minimize the risk of introducing bugs that create incompatibilities requiring rework and potential device updates.
10.1. Compatibility Test Suite
Device implementations MUST pass the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) [ Resources, 2 ] available from the Android Open Source Project, using the final shipping software on the device. Additionally, device implementers SHOULD use the reference implementation in the Android Open Source tree as much as possible, and MUST ensure compatibility in cases of ambiguity in CTS and for any reimplementations of parts of the reference source code.
The CTS is designed to be run on an actual device. Like any software, the CTS may itself contain bugs. The CTS will be versioned independently of this Compatibility Definition, and multiple revisions of the CTS may be released for Android 4.0. Device implementations MUST pass the latest CTS version available at the time the device software is completed.
10.2. CTS Verifier
Device implementations MUST correctly execute all applicable cases in the CTS Verifier. The CTS Verifier is included with the Compatibility Test Suite, and is intended to be run by a human operator to test functionality that cannot be tested by an automated system, such as correct functioning of a camera and sensors.
The CTS Verifier has tests for many kinds of hardware, including some hardware that is optional. Device implementations MUST pass all tests for hardware which they possess; for instance, if a device possesses an accelerometer, it MUST correctly execute the Accelerometer test case in the CTS Verifier. Test cases for features noted as optional by this Compatibility Definition Document MAY be skipped or omitted.
Every device and every build MUST correctly run the CTS Verifier, as noted above. However, since many builds are very similar, device implementers are not expected to explicitly run the CTS Verifier on builds that differ only in trivial ways. Specifically, device implementations that differ from an implementation that has passed the CTS Verfier only by the set of included locales, branding, etc. MAY omit the CTS Verifier test.
10.3. Reference Applications
Device implementers MUST test implementation compatibility using the following open source applications:
- The "Apps for Android" applications [ Resources, 55 ].
- Replica Island (available in Android Market)
Each app above MUST launch and behave correctly on the implementation, for the implementation to be considered compatible.
11. Updatable Software
Device implementations MUST include a mechanism to replace the entirety of the system software. The mechanism need not perform "live" upgrades - that is, a device restart MAY be required.
Any method can be used, provided that it can replace the entirety of the software preinstalled on the device. For instance, any of the following approaches will satisfy this requirement:
- Over-the-air (OTA) downloads with offline update via reboot
- "Tethered" updates over USB from a host PC
- "Offline" updates via a reboot and update from a file on removable storage
The update mechanism used MUST support updates without wiping user data. That is, the update mechanism MUST preserve application private data and application shared data. Note that the upstream Android software includes an update mechanism that satisfies this requirement.
If an error is found in a device implementation after it has been released but within its reasonable product lifetime that is determined in consultation with the Android Compatibility Team to affect the compatibility of third-party applications, the device implementer MUST correct the error via a software update available that can be applied per the mechanism just described.
12. Contact Us
You can contact the document authors at email@example.com for clarifications and to bring up any issues that you think the document does not cover.
Appendix A - Bluetooth Test Procedure
The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-operated Bluetooth test procedure described below.
The test procedure is based on the BluetoothChat sample app included in the Android open source project tree. The procedure requires two devices:
- a candidate device implementation running the software build to be tested
- a separate device implementation already known to be compatible, and of a model from the device implementation being tested - that is, a "known good" device implementation
The test procedure below refers to these devices as the "candidate" and "known good" devices, respectively.
Setup and Installation
- Build BluetoothChat.apk via 'make samples' from an Android source code tree.
- Install BluetoothChat.apk on the known-good device.
- Install BluetoothChat.apk on the candidate device.
Test Bluetooth Control by Apps
- Launch BluetoothChat on the candidate device, while Bluetooth is disabled.
- Verify that the candidate device either turns on Bluetooth, or prompts the user with a dialog to turn on Bluetooth.
Test Pairing and Communication
- Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Make the known-good device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
- On the candidate device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the known-good device.
- Send 10 or more messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
- Close the BluetoothChat app on both devices by pressing Home .
- Unpair each device from the other, using the device Settings app.
Test Pairing and Communication in the Reverse Direction
- Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Make the candidate device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
- On the known-good device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the candidate device.
- Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
- Close the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices by pressing Back repeatedly to get to the Launcher.
- Re-launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
Note: the above tests have some cases which end a test section by using Home, and some using Back. These tests are not redundant and are not optional: the objective is to verify that the Bluetooth API and stack works correctly both when Activities are explicitly terminated (via the user pressing Back, which calls finish()), and implicitly sent to background (via the user pressing Home.) Each test sequence MUST be performed as described.