systrace is the primary tool for analyzing Android device performance. However, it's really a wrapper around other tools. It's the host-side wrapper around atrace, the device-side executable that controls userspace tracing and sets up ftrace, and the primary tracing mechanism in the Linux kernel. systrace uses atrace to enable tracing, then reads the ftrace buffer and wraps it all in a self-contained HTML viewer. (While newer kernels have support for Linux Enhanced Berkeley Packet Filter (eBPF), the following documentation pertains to the 3.18 kernel (no eFPF) as that's what was used on the Pixel/Pixel XL.)
systrace is owned by the Google Android and Google Chrome teams and is open source as part of the Catapult project. In addition to systrace, Catapult includes other useful utilities. For example, ftrace has more features than can be directly enabled by systrace or atrace and contains some advanced functionality that is critical to debugging performance problems. (These features require root access and often a new kernel.)
When debugging jitter on Pixel/Pixel XL, start with the following command:
./systrace.py sched freq idle am wm gfx view sync binder_driver irq workq input -b 96000
When combined with the additional tracepoints required for GPU and display pipeline activity, this gives you the ability to trace from user input to frame displayed on screen. Set the buffer size to something large to avoid losing events (because without a large buffer some CPUs contain no events after some point in the trace).
When going through systrace, keep in mind that every event is triggered by something on the CPU.
Because systrace is built on top of ftrace and ftrace runs on the CPU, something on the CPU must write the ftrace buffer that logs hardware changes. This means that if you're curious about why a display fence changed state, you can see what was running on the CPU at the exact point of its transition (something running on the CPU triggered that change in the log). This concept is the foundation of analyzing performance using systrace.
Example: Working frame
This example describes a systrace for a normal UI pipeline. To follow along
with the example, download the zip file of traces
(which also includes other traces referred to in this section), unzip the file,
and open the
systrace_tutorial.html file in your browser. Be warned
that this systrace is a large file; unless you use systrace in your day-to-day
work, this is likely a much bigger trace with much more information than you've
ever seen in a single trace before.
For a consistent, periodic workload such as TouchLatency, the UI pipeline contains the following:
- EventThread in SurfaceFlinger wakes the app UI thread, signaling that it's time to render a new frame.
- The app renders a frame in UI thread, RenderThread, and hwuiTasks, using CPU and GPU resources. This is the bulk of the capacity spent for the UI.
- The app sends the rendered frame to SurfaceFlinger using a binder, then SurfaceFlinger goes to sleep.
- A second EventThread in SurfaceFlinger wakes SurfaceFlinger to trigger composition and display output. If SurfaceFlinger determines that there is no work to be done, it goes back to sleep.
- SurfaceFlinger handles composition using Hardware Composer (HWC)/Hardware Composer 2 (HWC2) or GL. HWC/HWC2 composition is faster and lower power but has limitations depending on the system on a chip (SoC). This usually takes ~4-6 ms, but can overlap with step 2 because Android apps are always triple buffered. (While apps are always triple buffered, there may only be one pending frame waiting in SurfaceFlinger, which makes it appear identical to double buffering.)
- SurfaceFlinger dispatches the final output to display with a vendor driver and goes back to sleep, waiting for EventThread wakeup.
Let's walk through the frame beginning at 15409 ms:
Figure 1 is a normal frame surrounded by normal frames, so it's a good starting point for understanding how the UI pipeline works. The UI thread row for TouchLatency includes different colors at different times. Bars denote different states for the thread:
- Gray. Sleeping.
- Blue. Runnable (it could run, but the scheduler hasn't picked it to run yet).
- Green. Actively running (the scheduler thinks it's running).
- Red. Uninterruptible sleep (generally sleeping on a lock in the kernel). Can be indicative of I/O load. Extremely useful for debugging performance issues.
- Orange. Uninterruptible sleep due to I/O load.
To view the reason for uninterruptible sleep (available from the
sched_blocked_reason tracepoint), select the red uninterruptible
While EventThread is running, the UI thread for TouchLatency becomes runnable. To see what woke it, click the blue section.
Figure 2 shows the TouchLatency UI thread was woken by tid 6843, which corresponds to EventThread. The UI thread wakes, renders a frame, and enqueues it for SurfaceFlinger to consume.
binder_driver tag is enabled in a trace, you can select a
binder transaction to view information on all of the processes involved in that
Figure 4 shows that, at 15,423.65 ms Binder:6832_1 in SurfaceFlinger becomes runnable because of tid 9579, which is TouchLatency's RenderThread. You can also see queueBuffer on both sides of the binder transaction.
During the queueBuffer on the SurfaceFlinger side, the number of pending frames from TouchLatency goes from 1 to 2.
Figure 5 shows triple buffering, where there are two completed frames and the app is about to start rendering a third. This is because we've already dropped some frames, so the app keeps two pending frames instead of one to try to avoid further dropped frames.
Soon after, SurfaceFlinger's main thread is woken by a second EventThread so it can output the older pending frame to the display:
SurfaceFlinger first latches the older pending buffer, which causes the pending buffer count to decrease from 2 to 1.
After latching the buffer, SurfaceFlinger sets up composition and submits the
final frame to the display. (Some of these sections are enabled as part of the
mdss tracepoint, so they may not be included on your SoC.)
mdss_fb0 wakes on CPU 0.
mdss_fb0 is the
display pipeline's kernel thread for outputting a rendered frame to the display.
We can see
mdss_fb0 as its own row in the trace (scroll down to
mdss_fb0 wakes up, runs briefly, enters uninterruptible sleep,
then wakes again.
Example: Non-working frame
This example describes a systrace used to debug Pixel/Pixel XL jitter. To
follow along with the example, download the zip
file of traces (which includes other traces referred to in this
section), unzip the file, and open the
systrace_tutorial.html file in your
When you open the systrace, you'll see something like this:
When looking for jank, check the FrameMissed row under SurfaceFlinger.
FrameMissed is a quality-of-life improvement provided by HWC2. When viewing
systrace for other devices, the FrameMissed row may not be present if the device
doesn't use HWC2. In either
case, FrameMissed is correlated with SurfaceFlinger missing one of its
extremely regular runtimes and an unchanged pending-buffer count for the app
com.prefabulated.touchlatency) at a vsync.
Figure 11 shows a missed frame at 15598.29&nbps;ms. SurfaceFlinger woke briefly at the vsync interval and went back to sleep without doing any work, which means SurfaceFlinger determined it wasn't worth trying to send a frame to the display again. Why?
To understand how the pipeline broke down for this frame, first review the working frame example above to see how a normal UI pipeline appears in systrace. When ready, return to the missed frame and work backward. Notice that SurfaceFlinger wakes and immediately goes to sleep. When viewing the number of pending frames from TouchLatency, there are two frames (a good clue to help figure out what's going on).
Because we have frames in SurfaceFlinger, it's not an app issue. In addition, SurfaceFlinger is waking at the correct time, so it's not a SurfaceFlinger issue. If SurfaceFlinger and the app both look normal, it's probably a driver issue.
sync tracepoints are enabled,
we can get information about the fences (shared between the display driver and
SurfaceFlinger) that control when frames are submitted to the display.
These fences are listed under
denotes when a frame is on the display. These fences are provided as
part of the
sync trace category. Which fences correspond to
particular events in SurfaceFlinger depends on your SOC and driver stack, so
work with your SOC vendor to understand the meaning of the fence categories in your
Figure 13 shows a frame that was displayed for 33 ms, not 16.7 ms as expected. Halfway through that slice, that frame should have been replaced by a new one but wasn't. View the previous frame and look for anything.
Figure 14 shows 14.482 ms a frame. The broken two-frame segment was 33.6 ms, which is roughly what we would expect for two frames (we render at 60 Hz, 16.7 ms per frame, which is close). But 14.482 ms isn't close to 16.7 ms at all, suggesting that something is very wrong with the display pipe.
Investigate exactly where that fence ends to determine what controls it.
A workqueue contains
__vsync_retire_work_handler, which is
running when the fence changes. Looking through the kernel source, you can see that
it's part of the display driver. It appears to be on the critical
path for the display pipeline, so it must run as quickly as possible. It's
runnable for 70 us or so (not a long scheduling delay), but it's a workqueue and
might not get scheduled accurately.
Check the previous frame to determine if that contributed; sometimes jitter can add up over time and eventually cause a missed deadline.
The runnable line on the kworker isn't visible because the viewer turns it
white when it's selected, but the statistics tell the story: 2.3 ms of scheduler
delay for part of the display pipeline critical path is bad.
Before continuing, fix the delay that by moving this part of the
display pipeline critical path from a workqueue (which runs as a
SCHED_OTHER CFS thread) to a dedicated
kthread. This function needs timing guarantees that workqueues can't (and aren't
intended to) provide.
Is this the reason for the jank? It's hard to say conclusively. Outside of easy-to-diagnose cases such as kernel lock contention causing display-critical threads to sleep, traces usually don't specify the problem. Could this jitter have been the cause of the dropped frame? Absolutely. The fence times should be 16.7 ms, but they aren't close to that at all in the frames leading up to the dropped frame. Given how tightly coupled the display pipeline is, it's possible that the jitter around the fence timings resulted in a dropped frame.
In this example, the solution involved converting
__vsync_retire_work_handler from a workqueue to a dedicated
kthread. This resulted in noticeable jitter improvements and reduced jank in the
bouncing ball test. Subsequent traces show fence timings that hover very close
to 16.7 ms.