最后更新：2013 年 4 月 21 日
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3.2.软 API 兼容性
3.3.原生 API 兼容性
3.5. API 行为兼容性
3.6. API 命名空间
附录 A - 蓝牙测试程序
本文档列举了设备与 Android 4.0 兼容必须满足的要求。
“必须”、“不得”、“要求”、“应”、“不应”、“应该”、“不应”、“推荐”、“可能”和“可选”的使用符合 IETF 标准在 RFC2119 [资源，1 ] 中定义。
本文档中使用的“设备实施者”或“实施者”是指开发运行 Android 4.0 的硬件/软件解决方案的个人或组织。 “设备实现”或“实现”是这样开发的硬件/软件解决方案。
要被视为与 Android 4.0 兼容，设备实现必须满足本兼容性定义中提出的要求，包括通过引用并入的任何文档。
如果此定义或第 10 节中描述的软件测试是沉默的、模棱两可的或不完整的，则设备实现者有责任确保与现有实现的兼容性。
出于这个原因，Android 开源项目 [ Resources, 3 ] 既是 Android 的参考实现，也是首选实现。强烈建议设备实施者尽可能将其实施基于 Android 开源项目提供的“上游”源代码。虽然假设某些组件可以替换为替代实现，但强烈建议不要这样做，因为通过软件测试将变得更加困难。实施者有责任确保与标准 Android 实施的行为完全兼容，包括和超越兼容性测试套件。最后，请注意，本文档明确禁止某些组件替换和修改。
- IETF RFC2119 要求级别： http ://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
- Android 兼容性计划概述：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/index.html
- Android 开源项目：http: //source.android.com/
- API 定义和文档：http: //developer.android.com/reference/packages.html
- Android 权限参考：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/Manifest.permission.html
- android.os.Build 参考：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/os/Build.html
- Android 4.0 允许的版本字符串：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/4.0/versions.html
- 渲染脚本：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/renderscript.html
- 硬件加速：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/graphics/hardware-accel.html
- android.webkit.WebView 类：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/webkit/WebView.html
- HTML5：http: //www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/multipage/
- HTML5 离线功能： http ://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#offline
- HTML5 视频标签： http ://dev.w3.org/html5/spec/Overview.html#video
- HTML5/W3C 地理定位 API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/geolocation-API/
- HTML5/W3C 网络数据库 API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/webdatabase/
- HTML5/W3C IndexedDB API： http ://www.w3.org/TR/IndexedDB/
- Dalvik 虚拟机规范：可在 Android 源代码中找到，位于 dalvik/docs
- AppWidgets：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guidelines/widget_design.html
- 通知：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/notifiers/notifications.html
- 应用资源： http ://code.google.com/android/reference/available-resources.html
- 状态栏图标样式指南：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/ui_guideline/icon_design.html#statusbarstructure
- 搜索管理器：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/SearchManager.html
- 祝酒词：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/widget/Toast.html
- 主题：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/themes.html
- R.style 类：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/R.style.html
- 动态壁纸：http: //developer.android.com/resources/articles/live-wallpapers.html
- Android 设备管理：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/admin/device-admin.html
- android.app.admin.DevicePolicyManager 类：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/admin/DevicePolicyManager.html
- Android 无障碍服务 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/accessibilityservice/package-summary.html
- Android 无障碍 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/view/accessibility/package-summary.html
- 眼睛免费项目： http ://code.google.com/p/eyes-free
- 文字转语音 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/speech/tts/package-summary.html
- 参考工具文档（用于 adb、aapt、ddms）：http: //developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/index.html
- Android apk 文件说明：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/fundamentals.html
- 清单文件：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/manifest-intro.html
- 猴子测试工具：http: //developer.android.com/guide/developing/tools/monkey.html
- Android android.content.pm.PackageManager 类和硬件特性列表：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/content/pm/PackageManager.html
- 支持多屏：http: //developer.android.com/guide/practices/screens_support.html
- android.util.DisplayMetrics：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/util/DisplayMetrics.html
- android.content.res.Configuration：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/content/res/Configuration.html
- android.hardware.SensorEvent：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/SensorEvent.html
- 蓝牙 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/bluetooth/package-summary.html
- NDEF 推送协议：http: //source.android.com/compatibility/ndef-push-protocol.pdf
- MIFARE MF1S503X： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S503x.pdf
- MIFARE MF1S703X： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF1S703x.pdf
- MIFARE MF0ICU1： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/data_sheet/MF0ICU1.pdf
- MIFARE MF0ICU2： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/short_data_sheet/MF0ICU2_SDS.pdf
- MIFARE AN130511： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130511.pdf
- MIFARE AN130411： http ://www.nxp.com/documents/application_note/AN130411.pdf
- 相机方向 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/hardware/Camera.html#setDisplayOrientation(int)
- Android 打开附件：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/accessory.html
- USB 主机 API：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/usb/host.html
- Android 安全和权限参考：http: //developer.android.com/guide/topics/security/security.html
- 适用于 Android 的应用程序： http ://code.google.com/p/apps-for-android
- android.app.DownloadManager 类：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/app/DownloadManager.html
- 安卓文件传输： http ://www.android.com/filetransfer
- Android 媒体格式：http: //developer.android.com/guide/appendix/media-formats.html
- HTTP 直播流协议草案： http ://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-pantos-http-live-streaming-03
- 运动事件 API：http: //developer.android.com/reference/android/view/MotionEvent.html
- 触摸输入配置：http: //source.android.com/tech/input/touch-devices.html
其中许多资源直接或间接源自 Android 4.0 SDK，并且在功能上与该 SDK 文档中的信息相同。在此兼容性定义或兼容性测试套件与 SDK 文档不一致的任何情况下，SDK 文档被视为权威。上述参考文献中提供的任何技术细节都被视为包含在本兼容性定义中。
3.1。托管 API 兼容性
托管（基于 Dalvik）的执行环境是 Android 应用程序的主要工具。 Android 应用程序编程接口 (API) 是向在托管 VM 环境中运行的应用程序公开的一组 Android 平台接口。设备实现必须提供 Android 4.0 SDK [资源，4 ] 公开的任何已记录 API 的完整实施，包括所有已记录的行为。
设备实现不得省略任何托管 API、更改 API 接口或签名、偏离记录的行为或包含无操作，除非此兼容性定义特别允许。
此兼容性定义允许设备实现忽略 Android 包含 API 的某些类型的硬件。在这种情况下，API 必须仍然存在并以合理的方式运行。有关此场景的具体要求，请参见第 7 节。
3.2.软 API 兼容性
除了第 3.1 节中的托管 API 之外，Android 还包括一个重要的仅运行时“软”API，其形式为诸如 Intent、权限和 Android 应用程序的类似方面等无法在应用程序编译时强制执行的方面。
设备实现者必须支持并强制执行权限参考页 [资源，5 ] 中记录的所有权限常量。请注意，第 10 节列出了与 Android 安全模型相关的其他要求。
Android API 在
android.os.Build类 [ Resources, 6 ] 上包含许多常量，用于描述当前设备。为了在设备实现中提供一致、有意义的值，下表包含了对设备实现必须遵守的这些值的格式的额外限制。
|android.os.Build.VERSION.RELEASE||当前执行的 Android 系统的版本，采用人类可读的格式。该字段必须具有 [ Resources, 7 ] 中定义的字符串值之一。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK||当前执行的 Android 系统的版本，采用第三方应用程序代码可访问的格式。对于 Android 4.0.1 - 4.0.2，此字段必须具有整数值 14。对于 Android 4.0.3 或更高版本，此字段必须具有整数值 15。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.SDK_INT||当前执行的 Android 系统的版本，采用第三方应用程序代码可访问的格式。对于 Android 4.0.1 - 4.0.2，此字段必须具有整数值 14。对于 Android 4.0.3 或更高版本，此字段必须具有整数值 15。|
|android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL||设备实现者选择的值，以人类可读的格式指定当前执行的 Android 系统的特定构建。此值不得重新用于最终用户可用的不同构建。此字段的典型用途是指示使用哪个构建号或源代码控制更改标识符来生成构建。该字段的具体格式没有要求，但不能为空或空字符串（“”）。|
|android.os.Build.BOARD||设备实现者选择的一个值，用于标识设备使用的特定内部硬件，采用人类可读的格式。该字段的一个可能用途是指示为设备供电的电路板的特定版本。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.BRAND||由设备实施者选择的值，以人类可读的格式标识生产设备的公司、组织、个人等的名称。此字段的一种可能用途是指明销售设备的 OEM 和/或运营商。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.CPU_ABI||本机代码的指令集名称（CPU 类型 + ABI 约定）。请参阅第 3.3 节：本机 API 兼容性。|
|android.os.Build.CPU_ABI2||本机代码的第二个指令集（CPU 类型 + ABI 约定）的名称。请参阅第 3.3 节：本机 API 兼容性。|
|android.os.Build.DEVICE||由设备实施者选择的一个值，用于标识设备主体的特定配置或修订（有时称为“工业设计”）。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
指纹不得包含空格字符。如果上面模板中包含的其他字段包含空格字符，则必须在构建指纹中将它们替换为另一个字符，例如下划线（“_”）字符。该字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII。
|android.os.Build.HARDWARE||硬件的名称（来自内核命令行或 /proc）。它应该是合理的人类可读的。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.ID||设备实现者选择的标识符，用于引用特定版本，采用人类可读的格式。此字段可以与 android.os.Build.VERSION.INCREMENTAL 相同，但应该是一个足以让最终用户区分软件构建的值。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.MANUFACTURER||产品的原始设备制造商 (OEM) 的商品名称。该字段的具体格式没有要求，但不能为空或空字符串（“”）。|
|android.os.Build.PRODUCT||由设备实施者选择的一个值，其中包含产品的开发名称或代码名称 (SKU)。必须是人类可读的，但不一定供最终用户查看。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.SERIAL||硬件序列号（如果有）。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.TAGS||由设备实现者选择的以逗号分隔的标签列表，用于进一步区分构建。例如，“未签名，调试”。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
|android.os.Build.TYPE||设备实现者选择的值，指定构建的运行时配置。该字段应该具有对应于三个典型 Android 运行时配置的值之一：“user”、“userdebug”或“eng”。此字段的值必须可编码为 7 位 ASCII 并匹配正则表达式|
设备实现必须遵循 Android 的松散耦合 Intent 系统，如下节所述。 “尊敬”是指设备实现者必须提供一个 Android 活动或服务，该活动或服务指定一个匹配的 Intent 过滤器，并绑定到每个指定的 Intent 模式并实现正确的行为。
但是，任何此类替代版本都必须遵循上游项目提供的相同 Intent 模式。例如，如果设备包含替代音乐播放器，它仍必须遵循第三方应用程序发布的 Intent 模式来挑选歌曲。
以下应用程序被视为核心 Android 系统应用程序：
核心 Android 系统应用程序包括各种被视为“公共”的 Activity 或 Service 组件。也就是说，属性“android:exported”可能不存在，或者可能具有值“true”。
对于在核心 Android 系统应用之一中定义的每个 Activity 或 Service 未通过值为“false”的 android:exported 属性标记为非公共，设备实现必须包含实现相同 Intent 过滤器的相同类型的组件模式作为核心的Android系统应用程序。
换句话说，设备实现可能会取代核心的 Android 系统应用程序；但是，如果支持，设备实现必须支持每个被替换的核心 Android 系统应用程序定义的所有 Intent 模式。
由于 Android 是一个可扩展的平台，设备实现必须允许第 188.8.131.52 节中引用的每个 Intent 模式被第三方应用程序覆盖。上游 Android 开源实现默认允许这样做；设备实现者不得将特殊权限附加到系统应用程序对这些 Intent 模式的使用，或阻止第三方应用程序绑定并控制这些模式。该禁止具体包括但不限于禁用“选择器”用户界面，该界面允许用户在所有处理相同意图模式的多个应用程序之间进行选择。
设备实现不得包含任何使用 android.* 或 com.android.* 命名空间中的 ACTION、CATEGORY 或其他键字符串来支持任何新 Intent 或 Broadcast Intent 模式的 Android 组件。设备实施者不得在属于另一个组织的包空间中包含任何使用 ACTION、CATEGORY 或其他键字符串来尊重任何新 Intent 或 Broadcast Intent 模式的 Android 组件。设备实现者不得更改或扩展第 184.108.40.206 节中列出的核心应用程序使用的任何 Intent 模式。设备实现可能包括使用名称空间的 Intent 模式，这些名称空间与它们自己的组织相关联。
这种禁止类似于第 3.6 节中为 Java 语言类指定的禁止。
第三方应用程序依靠平台广播某些 Intent 来通知他们硬件或软件环境的变化。 Android 兼容设备必须广播公共广播 Intent 以响应适当的系统事件。广播意图在 SDK 文档中进行了描述。
3.3.原生 API 兼容性
在 Dalvik 中运行的托管代码可以调用应用程序 .apk 文件中提供的本机代码，作为为适当的设备硬件架构编译的 ELF .so 文件。由于本机代码高度依赖于底层处理器技术，Android 在 Android NDK 中的
docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt文件中定义了许多应用程序二进制接口 (ABI)。如果设备实现与一个或多个定义的 ABI 兼容，它应该实现与 Android NDK 的兼容性，如下所示。
如果设备实现包括对 Android ABI 的支持，它：
- 必须包括对在托管环境中运行的代码的支持，以使用标准 Java 本机接口 (JNI) 语义调用本机代码。
- 必须与以下列表中的每个所需库兼容源代码（即标头兼容）和二进制兼容（对于 ABI）
android.os.Build.CPU_ABIAPI 准确报告设备支持的本机应用程序二进制接口 (ABI)
docs/CPU-ARCH-ABIS.txt中报告最新版本的 Android NDK 中记录的 ABI
- 应该使用上游 Android 开源项目中可用的源代码和头文件构建
以下本机代码 API 必须可用于包含本机代码的应用程序：
- libc（C 库）
- 对 C++ 的最低支持
- liblog（Android 日志记录）
- libz（Zlib 压缩）
- libGLESv1_CM.so (OpenGL ES 1.0)
- libGLESv2.so (OpenGL ES 2.0)
- libEGL.so（原生 OpenGL 表面管理）
- libOpenSLES.so（OpenSL ES 1.0.1 音频支持）
- libOpenMAXAL.so（OpenMAX AL 1.0.1 支持）
- libandroid.so（原生 Android 活动支持）
- 支持 OpenGL，如下所述
请注意，Android NDK 的未来版本可能会引入对其他 ABI 的支持。如果设备实现与现有的预定义 ABI 不兼容，则它绝不能报告对任何 ABI 的支持。
3.4.1。 Web 视图兼容性
Android 开源实现使用 WebKit 渲染引擎来实现
android.webkit.WebView 。因为为 Web 渲染系统开发一个全面的测试套件是不可行的，设备实现者必须在 WebView 实现中使用特定的上游构建的 WebKit。具体来说：
android.webkit.WebView实现必须基于来自 Android 4.0 的上游 Android 开源树的 534.30 WebKit 构建。此版本包括一组特定的 WebView 功能和安全修复程序。设备实现者可以包括对 WebKit 实现的定制；但是，任何此类自定义都不得改变 WebView 的行为，包括呈现行为。
- WebView 报告的用户代理字符串必须采用以下格式：
Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android $(VERSION); $(LOCALE); $(MODEL) Build/$(BUILD)) AppleWebKit/534.30 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/534.30
- $(VERSION) 字符串的值必须与
- $(LOCALE) 字符串的值应该遵循国家代码和语言的 ISO 约定，并且应该参考设备当前配置的区域设置
- $(MODEL) 字符串的值必须与
- $(BUILD) 字符串的值必须与
- $(VERSION) 字符串的值必须与
WebView 组件应该尽可能多地支持 HTML5 [参考资料，11 ]。最低限度，设备实现必须支持与 WebView 中的 HTML5 关联的这些 API：
设备实现必须包含用于一般用户网页浏览的独立浏览器应用程序。独立浏览器可能基于 WebKit 以外的浏览器技术。但是，即使使用备用浏览器应用程序，提供给第三方应用程序的
android.webkit.WebView组件也必须基于 WebKit，如第 3.4.1 节所述。
独立的浏览器应用程序（无论是基于上游 WebKit 浏览器应用程序还是第三方替代品）应该尽可能多地支持 HTML5 [参考资料，11 ]。最低限度，设备实现必须支持与 HTML5 相关的这些 API：
3.5. API 行为兼容性
每种 API 类型（托管、软、原生和 Web）的行为必须与上游 Android 开源项目 [参考资料，3 ] 的首选实现一致。一些特定的兼容性领域是：
- 设备不得更改标准 Intent 的行为或语义
上面的列表并不全面。兼容性测试套件 (CTS) 测试平台的重要部分的行为兼容性，但不是全部。实施者有责任确保与 Android 开源项目的行为兼容性。出于这个原因，设备实现者应该尽可能使用通过 Android 开源项目提供的源代码，而不是重新实现系统的重要部分。
3.6. API 命名空间
Android 遵循 Java 编程语言定义的包和类命名空间约定。为确保与第三方应用程序的兼容性，设备实施者不得对这些包命名空间进行任何禁止的修改（见下文）：
- 设备实现不得通过更改任何方法或类签名或删除类或类字段来修改 Android 平台上公开的 API。
- 设备实现者可以修改 API 的底层实现，但此类修改不得影响任何公开公开的 API 的声明行为和 Java 语言签名。
- 设备实现者不得将任何公开暴露的元素（例如类或接口，或现有类或接口的字段或方法）添加到上述 API。
“公开暴露的元素”是任何未使用上游 Android 源代码中使用的“@hide”标记修饰的构造。换句话说，设备实现者不得公开新的 API 或更改上述命名空间中的现有 API。设备实施者可以进行仅限内部的修改，但不得向开发人员宣传或以其他方式公开这些修改。
设备实现者可以添加自定义 API，但任何此类 API 不得位于其他组织拥有或引用的命名空间中。例如，设备实现者不得将 API 添加到 com.google.* 或类似命名空间；只有谷歌可以这样做。同样，Google 不得将 API 添加到其他公司的命名空间。此外，如果设备实现包含标准 Android 命名空间之外的自定义 API，则这些 API 必须打包在 Android 共享库中，以便只有显式使用它们的应用程序（通过
如果设备实现者提议改进上述包命名空间之一（例如通过向现有 API 添加有用的新功能，或添加新 API），则实现者应该访问 source.android.com 并开始贡献更改和代码，根据该网站上的信息。
请注意，上述限制对应于 Java 编程语言中命名 API 的标准约定；本节旨在通过包含在此兼容性定义中来加强这些约定并使其具有约束力。
设备实现必须支持完整的 Dalvik Executable (DEX) 字节码规范和 Dalvik 虚拟机语义 [资源，17 ]。
设备实现必须配置 Dalvik 以根据上游 Android 平台分配内存，并由下表指定。 （有关屏幕尺寸和屏幕密度的定义，请参见第 7.1.1 节。）
|小/正常/大||tvdpi / hdpi||32MB|
|small / normal / large||xhdpi||64MB|
|xlarge||tvdpi / hdpi||64MB|
3.8. User Interface Compatibility
Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose an "AppWidget" to the end user [ Resources, 18 ]. The Android Open Source reference release includes a Launcher application that includes user interface affordances allowing the user to add, view, and remove AppWidgets from the home screen.
Device implementations MAY substitute an alternative to the reference Launcher (ie home screen). Alternative Launchers SHOULD include built-in support for AppWidgets, and expose user interface affordances to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets directly within the Launcher. Alternative Launchers MAY omit these user interface elements; however, if they are omitted, the device implementation MUST provide a separate application accessible from the Launcher that allows users to add, configure, view, and remove AppWidgets.
Device implementations MUST be capable of rendering widgets that are 4 x 4 in the standard grid size. (See the App Widget Design Guidelines in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 18 ] for details.
Android includes APIs that allow developers to notify users of notable events [ Resources, 19 ], using hardware and software features of the device.
Some APIs allow applications to perform notifications or attract attention using hardware, specifically sound, vibration, and light. Device implementations MUST support notifications that use hardware features, as described in the SDK documentation, and to the extent possible with the device implementation hardware. For instance, if a device implementation includes a vibrator, it MUST correctly implement the vibration APIs. If a device implementation lacks hardware, the corresponding APIs MUST be implemented as no-ops. Note that this behavior is further detailed in Section 7.
Additionally, the implementation MUST correctly render all resources (icons, sound files, etc.) provided for in the APIs [ Resources, 20 ], or in the Status/System Bar icon style guide [ Resources, 21 ]. Device implementers MAY provide an alternative user experience for notifications than that provided by the reference Android Open Source implementation; however, such alternative notification systems MUST support existing notification resources, as above.
Android 4.0 includes support for rich notifications, such as interactive Views for ongoing notifications. Device implementations MUST properly display and execute rich notifications, as documented in the Android APIs.
Android includes APIs [ Resources, 22 ] that allow developers to incorporate search into their applications, and expose their application's data into the global system search. Generally speaking, this functionality consists of a single, system-wide user interface that allows users to enter queries, displays suggestions as users type, and displays results. The Android APIs allow developers to reuse this interface to provide search within their own apps, and allow developers to supply results to the common global search user interface.
Device implementations MUST include a single, shared, system-wide search user interface capable of real-time suggestions in response to user input. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow developers to reuse this user interface to provide search within their own applications. Device implementations MUST implement the APIs that allow third-party applications to add suggestions to the search box when it is run in global search mode. If no third-party applications are installed that make use of this functionality, the default behavior SHOULD be to display web search engine results and suggestions.
Applications can use the "Toast" API (defined in [ Resources, 23 ]) to display short non-modal strings to the end user, that disappear after a brief period of time. Device implementations MUST display Toasts from applications to end users in some high-visibility manner.
Android provides "themes" as a mechanism for applications to apply styles across an entire Activity or application. Android 3.0 introduced a new "Holo" or "holographic" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the Holo theme look and feel as defined by the Android SDK [ Resources, 24 ]. Device implementations MUST NOT alter any of the Holo theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].
Android 4.0 introduces a new "Device Default" theme as a set of defined styles for application developers to use if they want to match the look and feel of the device theme as defined by the device implementer. Device implementations MAY modify the DeviceDefault theme attributes exposed to applications [ Resources, 25 ].
3.8.6. Live Wallpapers
Android defines a component type and corresponding API and lifecycle that allows applications to expose one or more "Live Wallpapers" to the end user [ Resources, 26 ]. Live Wallpapers are animations, patterns, or similar images with limited input capabilities that display as a wallpaper, behind other applications.
Hardware is considered capable of reliably running live wallpapers if it can run all live wallpapers, with no limitations on functionality, at a reasonable framerate with no adverse affects on other applications. If limitations in the hardware cause wallpapers and/or applications to crash, malfunction, consume excessive CPU or battery power, or run at unacceptably low frame rates, the hardware is considered incapable of running live wallpaper. As an example, some live wallpapers may use an Open GL 1.0 or 2.0 context to render their content. Live wallpaper will not run reliably on hardware that does not support multiple OpenGL contexts because the live wallpaper use of an OpenGL context may conflict with other applications that also use an OpenGL context.
Device implementations capable of running live wallpapers reliably as described above SHOULD implement live wallpapers. Device implementations determined to not run live wallpapers reliably as described above MUST NOT implement live wallpapers.
3.8.7. Recent Application Display
The upstream Android 4.0 source code includes a user interface for displaying recent applications using a thumbnail image of the application's graphical state at the moment the user last left the application. Device implementations MAY alter or eliminate this user interface; however, a future version of Android is planned to make more extensive use of this functionality. Device implementations are strongly encouraged to use the upstream Android 4.0 user interface (or a similar thumbnail-based interface) for recent applications, or else they may not be compatible with a future version of Android.
3.8.8. Input Management Settings
Android 4.0 includes support for Input Management Engines. The Android 4.0 APIs allow custom app IMEs to specify user-tunable settings. Device implementations MUST include a way for the user to access IME settings at all times when an IME that provides such user settings is displayed.
3.9 Device Administration
Android 4.0 includes features that allow security-aware applications to perform device administration functions at the system level, such as enforcing password policies or performing remote wipe, through the Android Device Administration API [ Resources, 27 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the
DevicePolicyManager class [ Resources, 28 ], and SHOULD support the full range of device administration policies defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 27 ].
If device implementations do not support the full range of device administration policies, they MUST NOT allow device administration applications to be enabled. Specifically, if a device does not support all device administration policies, the device implementation MUST respond to the
android.app.admin.DevicePolicyManager.ACTION_ADD_DEVICE_ADMIN intent, but MUST dislpay a message notifying the user that the device does not support device administration.
Android 4.0 provides an accessibility layer that helps users with disabilities to navigate their devices more easily. In addition, Android 4.0 provides platform APIs that enable accessibility service implementations to receive callbacks for user and system events and generate alternate feedback mechanisms, such as text-to-speech, haptic feedback, and trackball/d-pad navigation [ Resources, 29 ]. Device implementations MUST provide an implementation of the Android accessibility framework consistent with the default Android implementation. Specifically, device implementations MUST meet the following requirements.
- Device implementations MUST support third party accessibility service implementations through the
android.accessibilityserviceAPIs [ Resources, 30 ].
- Device implementations MUST generate
AccessibilityEvents and deliver these events to all registered
AccessibilityServiceimplementations in a manner consistent with the default Android implementation.
- Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible mechanism to enable and disable accessibility services, and MUST display this interface in response to the
Additionally, device implementations SHOULD provide an implementation of an accessibility service on the device, and SHOULD provide a mechanism for users to enable the accessibility service during device setup. An open source implementation of an accessibility service is available from the Eyes Free project [ Resources, 31 ].
Android 4.0 includes APIs that allow applications to make use of text-to-speech (TTS) services, and allows service providers to provide implementations of TTS services [ Resources, 32 ]. Device implementations MUST meet these requirements related to the Android TTS framework:
- Device implementations MUST support the Android TTS framework APIs and SHOULD include a TTS engine supporting the languages available on the device. Note that the upstream Android open source software includes a full-featured TTS engine implementation.
- Device implementations MUST support installation of third-party TTS engines.
- Device implementations MUST provide a user-accessible interface that allows users to select a TTS engine for use at the system level.
4. Application Packaging Compatibility
Device implementations MUST install and run Android ".apk" files as generated by the "aapt" tool included in the official Android SDK [ Resources, 33 ].
Devices implementations MUST NOT extend either the .apk [ Resources, 34 ], Android Manifest [ Resources, 35 ], Dalvik bytecode [ Resources, 17 ], or renderscript bytecode formats in such a way that would prevent those files from installing and running correctly on other compatible devices. Device implementers SHOULD use the reference upstream implementation of Dalvik, and the reference implementation's package management system.
5. Multimedia Compatibility
Device implementations MUST include at least one form of audio output, such as speakers, headphone jack, external speaker connection, etc.
5.1. Media Codecs
Device implementations MUST support the core media formats specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ] except where explicitly permitted in this document. Specifically, device implementations MUST support the media formats, encoders, decoders, file types and container formats defined in the tables below. All of these codecs are provided as software implementations in the preferred Android implementation from the Android Open Source Project.
Please note that neither Google nor the Open Handset Alliance make any representation that these codecs are unencumbered by third-party patents. Those intending to use this source code in hardware or software products are advised that implementations of this code, including in open source software or shareware, may require patent licenses from the relevant patent holders.
Note that these tables do not list specific bitrate requirements for most video codecs because current device hardware does not necessarily support bitrates that map exactly to the required bitrates specified by the relevant standards. Instead, device implementations SHOULD support the highest bitrate practical on the hardware, up to the limits defined by the specifications.
|类型||Format / Codec||Encoder||Decoder||Details||File Type(s) / Container Formats|
|声音的||AAC LC/LTP|| REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||Mono/Stereo content in any combination of standard bit rates up to 160 kbps and sampling rates from 8 to 48kHz|
|HE-AACv2 (enhanced AAC+)||REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||4.75 to 12.2 kbps sampled @ 8kHz||3GPP (.3gp)|
Required for device implementations that include microphone hardware and define
|REQUIRED||9 rates from 6.60 kbit/s to 23.85 kbit/s sampled @ 16kHz||3GPP (.3gp)|
|Mono/Stereo (no multichannel). Sample rates up to 48 kHz (but up to 44.1 kHz is recommended on devices with 44.1 kHz output, as the 48 to 44.1 kHz downsampler does not include a low-pass filter). 16-bit recommended; no dither applied for 24-bit.||FLAC (.flac) only|
|MP3||REQUIRED||Mono/Stereo 8-320Kbps constant (CBR) or variable bit-rate (VBR)||MP3 (.mp3)|
|MIDI||REQUIRED||MIDI Type 0 and 1. DLS Version 1 and 2. XMF and Mobile XMF. Support for ringtone formats RTTTL/RTX, OTA, and iMelody|
|PCM/WAVE||REQUIRED||8- and 16-bit linear PCM (rates up to limit of hardware)||WAVE (.wav)|
Required for device implementations that include camera hardware and define
|H.264 AVC|| REQUIRED|
Required for device implementations that include camera hardware and define
|REQUIRED||Baseline Profile (BP)|
|MPEG-4 SP||REQUIRED||3GPP (.3gp)|
|WebM (.webm) and Matroska (.mkv, Android 4.0+)|
5.2 Video Encoding
Android device implementations that include a rear-facing camera and declare
android.hardware.camera SHOULD support the following video encoding profiles.
|SD (Low quality)||SD (High quality)||HD (When supported by hardware)|
|Video codec||H.264 Baseline Profile||H.264 Baseline Profile||H.264 Baseline Profile|
|Video resolution||176 x 144 px||480 x 360 px||1280 x 720 px|
|Video frame rate||12 fps||30 fps||30 fps|
|Video bitrate||56 Kbps||500 Kbps or higher||2 Mbps or higher|
|Audio channels||1 (mono)||2 (stereo)||2 (stereo)|
|Audio bitrate||24 Kbps||128 Kbps||192 Kbps|
5.3. Audio Recording
When an application has used the
android.media.AudioRecord API to start recording an audio stream, device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare
android.hardware.microphone MUST sample and record audio with each of these behaviors:
- The device SHOULD exhibit approximately flat amplitude versus frequency characteristics; specifically, ±3 dB, from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz
- Audio input sensitivity SHOULD be set such that a 90 dB sound power level (SPL) source at 1000 Hz yields RMS of 2500 for 16-bit samples.
- PCM amplitude levels SHOULD linearly track input SPL changes over at least a 30 dB range from -18 dB to +12 dB re 90 dB SPL at the microphone.
- Total harmonic distortion SHOULD be less than 1% from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz at 90 dB SPL input level.
In addition to the above recording specifications, when an application has started recording an audio stream using the
android.media.MediaRecorder.AudioSource.VOICE_RECOGNITION audio source:
- Noise reduction processing, if present, MUST be disabled.
- Automatic gain control, if present, MUST be disabled.
Note: while some of the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.
5.4. Audio Latency
Audio latency is broadly defined as the interval between when an application requests an audio playback or record operation, and when the device implementation actually begins the operation. Many classes of applications rely on short latencies, to achieve real-time effects such sound effects or VOIP communication. Device implementations that include microphone hardware and declare
android.hardware.microphone SHOULD meet all audio latency requirements outlined in this section. See Section 7 for details on the conditions under which microphone hardware may be omitted by device implementations.
For the purposes of this section:
- "cold output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been idle and powered down prior to the request
- "warm output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio playback and when sound begins playing, when the audio system has been recently used but is currently idle (that is, silent)
- "continuous output latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application issues a sample to be played and when the speaker physically plays the corresponding sound, while the device is currently playing back audio
- "cold input latency" is defined to be the interval between when an application requests audio recording and when the first sample is delivered to the application via its callback, when the audio system and microphone has been idle and powered down prior to the request
- "continuous input latency" is defined to be when an ambient sound occurs and when the sample corresponding to that sound is delivered to a recording application via its callback, while the device is in recording mode
Using the above definitions, device implementations SHOULD exhibit each of these properties:
- cold output latency of 100 milliseconds or less
- warm output latency of 10 milliseconds or less
- continuous output latency of 45 milliseconds or less
- cold input latency of 100 milliseconds or less
- continuous input latency of 50 milliseconds or less
Note: while the requirements outlined above are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these requirements are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required by a future version. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 , or they will not be able to attain Android compatibility when upgraded to the future version.
If a device implementation meets the requirements of this section, it MAY report support for low-latency audio, by reporting the feature "android.hardware.audio.low-latency" via the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ] Conversely, if the device implementation does not meet these requirements it MUST NOT report support for low-latency audio.
5.5. Network Protocols
Devices MUST support the media network protocols for audio and video playback as specified in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 58 ]. Specifically, devices MUST support the following media network protocols:
- RTSP (RTP, SDP)
- HTTP(S) progressive streaming
- HTTP(S) Live Streaming draft protocol, Version 3 [ Resources, 59 ]
6. Developer Tool Compatibility
Device implementations MUST support the Android Developer Tools provided in the Android SDK. Specifically, Android-compatible devices MUST be compatible with:
- Android Debug Bridge (known as adb) [ Resources, 33 ]
Device implementations MUST support all
adbfunctions as documented in the Android SDK. The device-side
adbdaemon MUST be inactive by default, and there MUST be a user-accessible mechanism to turn on the Android Debug Bridge.
- Dalvik Debug Monitor Service (known as ddms) [ Resources, 33 ]
Device implementations MUST support all
ddmsfeatures as documented in the Android SDK. As
adb, support for
ddmsSHOULD be inactive by default, but MUST be supported whenever the user has activated the Android Debug Bridge, as above.
- Monkey [ Resources, 36 ]
Device implementations MUST include the Monkey framework, and make it available for applications to use.
Most Linux-based systems and Apple Macintosh systems recognize Android devices using the standard Android SDK tools, without additional support; however Microsoft Windows systems typically require a driver for new Android devices. (For instance, new vendor IDs and sometimes new device IDs require custom USB drivers for Windows systems.) If a device implementation is unrecognized by the
adb tool as provided in the standard Android SDK, device implementers MUST provide Windows drivers allowing developers to connect to the device using the
adb protocol. These drivers MUST be provided for Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions.
7. Hardware Compatibility
If a device includes a particular hardware component that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. If an API in the SDK interacts with a hardware component that is stated to be optional and the device implementation does not possess that component:
- complete class definitions (as documented by the SDK) for the component's APIs MUST still be present
- the API's behaviors MUST be implemented as no-ops in some reasonable fashion
- API methods MUST return null values where permitted by the SDK documentation
- API methods MUST return no-op implementations of classes where null values are not permitted by the SDK documentation
- API methods MUST NOT throw exceptions not documented by the SDK documentation
A typical example of a scenario where these requirements apply is the telephony API: even on non-phone devices, these APIs must be implemented as reasonable no-ops.
Device implementations MUST accurately report accurate hardware configuration information via the
hasSystemFeature(String) methods on the
android.content.pm.PackageManager class. [ Resources, 37 ]
7.1. Display and Graphics
Android 4.0 includes facilities that automatically adjust application assets and UI layouts appropriately for the device, to ensure that third-party applications run well on a variety of hardware configurations [ Resources, 38 ]. Devices MUST properly implement these APIs and behaviors, as detailed in this section.
The units referenced by the requirements in this section are defined as follows:
- "Physical diagonal size" is the distance in inches between two opposing corners of the illuminated portion of the display.
- "dpi" (meaning "dots per inch") is the number of pixels encompassed by a linear horizontal or vertical span of 1". Where dpi values are listed, both horizontal and vertical dpi must fall within the range.
- "Aspect ratio" is the ratio of the longer dimension of the screen to the shorter dimension. For example, a display of 480x854 pixels would be 854 / 480 = 1.779, or roughly "16:9".
- A "density-independent pixel" or ("dp") is the virtual pixel unit normalized to a 160 dpi screen, calculated as:
pixels = dps * (density / 160).
7.1.1. Screen Configuration
The Android UI framework supports a variety of different screen sizes, and allows applications to query the device screen size (aka "screen layout") via
android.content.res.Configuration.screenLayout with the
SCREENLAYOUT_SIZE_MASK . Device implementations MUST report the correct screen size as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 38 ] and determined by the upstream Android platform. Specifically, device implementations must report the correct screen size according to the following logical density-independent pixel (dp) screen dimensions.
- Devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 426 dp x 320 dp ('small')
- Devices that report screen size 'normal' MUST have screen sizes of at least 470 dp x 320 dp
- Devices that report screen size 'large' MUST have screen sizes of at least 640 dp x 480 dp
- Devices that report screen size 'xlarge' MUST have screen sizes of at least 960 dp x 720 dp
In addition, devices MUST have screen sizes of at least 2.5 inches in physical diagonal size.
Devices MUST NOT change their reported screen size at any time.
Applications optionally indicate which screen sizes they support via the
<supports-screens> attribute in the AndroidManifest.xml file. Device implementations MUST correctly honor applications' stated support for small, normal, large, and xlarge screens, as described in the Android SDK documentation.
Screen Aspect Ratio
The aspect ratio MUST be between 1.3333 (4:3) and 1.85 (16:9).
The Android UI framework defines a set of standard logical densities to help application developers target application resources. Device implementations MUST report one of the following logical Android framework densities through the
android.util.DisplayMetrics APIs, and MUST execute applications at this standard density.
- 120 dpi, known as 'ldpi'
- 160 dpi, known as 'mdpi'
- 213 dpi, known as 'tvdpi'
- 240 dpi, known as 'hdpi'
- 320 dpi, known as 'xhdpi'
7.1.2. Display Metrics
Device implementations MUST report correct values for all display metrics defined in
android.util.DisplayMetrics [ Resources, 39 ].
7.1.3. Screen Orientation
Devices MUST support dynamic orientation by applications to either portrait or landscape screen orientation. That is, the device must respect the application's request for a specific screen orientation. Device implementations MAY select either portrait or landscape orientation as the default.
Devices MUST report the correct value for the device's current orientation, whenever queried via the android.content.res.Configuration.orientation, android.view.Display.getOrientation(), or other APIs.
Devices MUST NOT change the reported screen size or density when changing orientation.
Devices MUST report which screen orientations they support (
android.hardware.screen.landscape ) and MUST report at least one supported orientation. For example, a device with a fixed-orientation landscape screen, such as a television or laptop, MUST only report
7.1.4. 2D and 3D Graphics Acceleration
Device implementations MUST support both OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0, as embodied and detailed in the Android SDK documentations. Device implementations MUST also support Android Renderscript, as detailed in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 8 ].
Device implementations MUST also correctly identify themselves as supporting OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0. That is:
- The managed APIs (such as via the
GLES10.getString()method) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0
- The native C/C++ OpenGL APIs (that is, those available to apps via libGLES_v1CM.so, libGLES_v2.so, or libEGL.so) MUST report support for OpenGL ES 1.0 and 2.0.
Device implementations MAY implement any desired OpenGL ES extensions. However, device implementations MUST report via the OpenGL ES managed and native APIs all extension strings that they do support, and conversely MUST NOT report extension strings that they do not support.
Note that Android 4.0 includes support for applications to optionally specify that they require specific OpenGL texture compression formats. These formats are typically vendor-specific. Device implementations are not required by Android 4.0 to implement any specific texture compression format. However, they SHOULD accurately report any texture compression formats that they do support, via the
getString() method in the OpenGL API.
Android 3.0 introduced a mechanism for applications to declare that they wanted to enable hardware acceleration for 2D graphics at the Application, Activity, Window or View level through the use of a manifest tag
android:hardwareAccelerated or direct API calls [ Resources, 9 ].
In Android 4.0, device implementations MUST enable hardware acceleration by default, and MUST disable hardware acceleration if the developer so requests by setting
android:hardwareAccelerated="false" or disabling hardware acceleration directly through the Android View APIs.
In addition, device implementations MUST exhibit behavior consistent with the Android SDK documentation on hardware acceleration [ Resources, 9 ].
Android 4.0 includes a
TextureView object that lets developers directly integrate hardware-accelerated OpenGL ES textures as rendering targets in a UI hierarchy. Device implementations MUST support the
TextureView API, and MUST exhibit consistent behavior with the upstream Android implementation.
7.1.5. Legacy Application Compatibility Mode
Android 4.0 specifies a "compatibility mode" in which the framework operates in an 'normal' screen size equivalent (320dp width) mode for the benefit of legacy applications not developed for old versions of Android that pre-date screen-size independence. Device implementations MUST include support for legacy application compatibility mode as implemented by the upstream Android open source code. That is, device implementations MUST NOT alter the triggers or thresholds at which compatibility mode is activated, and MUST NOT alter the behavior of the compatibility mode itself.
7.1.6. Screen Types
Device implementation screens are classified as one of two types:
- Fixed-pixel display implementations: the screen is a single panel that supports only a single pixel width and height. Typically the screen is physically integrated with the device. Examples include mobile phones, tablets, and so on.
- Variable-pixel display implementations: the device implementation either has no embedded screen and includes a video output port such as VGA or HDMI for display, or has an embedded screen that can change pixel dimensions. Examples include televisions, set-top boxes, and so on.
Fixed-Pixel Device Implementations
Fixed-pixel device implementations MAY use screens of any pixel dimensions, provided that they meet the requirements defined this Compatibility Definition.
Fixed-pixel implementations MAY include a video output port for use with an external display. However, if that display is ever used for running apps, the device MUST meet the following requirements:
- The device MUST report the same screen configuration and display metrics, as detailed in Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2, as the fixed-pixel display.
- The device MUST report the same logical density as the fixed-pixel display.
- The device MUST report screen dimensions that are the same as, or very close to, the fixed-pixel display.
For example, a tablet that is 7" diagonal size with a 1024x600 pixel resolution is considered a fixed-pixel large mdpi display implementation. If it contains a video output port that displays at 720p or 1080p, the device implementation MUST scale the output so that applications are only executed in a large mdpi window, regardless of whether the fixed-pixel display or video output port is in use.
Variable-Pixel Device Implementations
Variable-pixel device implementations MUST support one or both of 1280x720, or 1920x1080 (that is, 720p or 1080p). Device implementations with variable-pixel displays MUST NOT support any other screen configuration or mode. Device implementations with variable-pixel screens MAY change screen configuration or mode at runtime or boot-time. For example, a user of a set-top box may replace a 720p display with a 1080p display, and the device implementation may adjust accordingly.
Additionally, variable-pixel device implementations MUST report the following configuration buckets for these pixel dimensions:
- 1280x720 (also known as 720p): 'large' screen size, 'tvdpi' (213 dpi) density
- 1920x1080 (also known as 1080p): 'large' screen size, 'xhdpi' (320 dpi) density
For clarity, device implementations with variable pixel dimensions are restricted to 720p or 1080p in Android 4.0, and MUST be configured to report screen size and density buckets as noted above.
7.1.7. Screen Technology
The Android platform includes APIs that allow applications to render rich graphics to the display. Devices MUST support all of these APIs as defined by the Android SDK unless specifically allowed in this document. Specifically:
- Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering 16-bit color graphics and SHOULD support displays capable of 24-bit color graphics.
- Devices MUST support displays capable of rendering animations.
- The display technology used MUST have a pixel aspect ratio (PAR) between 0.9 and 1.1. That is, the pixel aspect ratio MUST be near square (1.0) with a 10% tolerance.
7.2. Input Devices
- MUST include support for the Input Management Framework (which allows third party developers to create Input Management Engines - ie soft keyboard) as detailed at http://developer.android.com
- MUST provide at least one soft keyboard implementation (regardless of whether a hard keyboard is present)
- MAY include additional soft keyboard implementations
- MAY include a hardware keyboard
- MUST NOT include a hardware keyboard that does not match one of the formats specified in
android.content.res.Configuration.keyboard[ Resources, 40 ] (that is, QWERTY, or 12-key)
7.2.2. Non-touch Navigation
- MAY omit a non-touch navigation option (that is, may omit a trackball, d-pad, or wheel)
- MUST report the correct value for
android.content.res.Configuration.navigation[ Resources, 40 ]
- MUST provide a reasonable alternative user interface mechanism for the selection and editing of text, compatible with Input Management Engines. The upstream Android open source software includes a selection mechanism suitable for use with devices that lack non-touch navigation inputs.
7.2.3. Navigation keys
The Home, Menu and Back functions are essential to the Android navigation paradigm. Device implementations MUST make these functions available to the user at all times when running applications. These functions MAY be implemented via dedicated physical buttons (such as mechanical or capacitive touch buttons), or MAY be implemented using dedicated software keys, gestures, touch panel, etc. Android 4.0 supports both implementations.
Device implementations MAY use a distinct portion of the screen to display the navigation keys, but if so, MUST meet these requirements:
- Device implementation navigation keys MUST use a distinct portion of the screen, not available to applications, and MUST NOT obscure or otherwise interfere with the portion of the screen available to applications.
- Device implementations MUST make available a portion of the display to applications that meets the requirements defined in Section 7.1.1 .
- Device implementations MUST display the navigation keys when applications do not specify a system UI mode, or specify
- Device implementations MUST present the navigation keys in an unobtrusive "low profile" (eg. dimmed) mode when applications specify
- Device implementations MUST hide the navigation keys when applications specify
- Device implementation MUST present a Menu key to applications when targetSdkVersion <= 10 and SHOULD NOT present a Menu key when the targetSdkVersion > 10.
7.2.4. Touchscreen input
- MUST have a pointer input system of some kind (either mouse-like, or touch)
- MAY have a touchscreen of any modality (such as capacitive or resistive)
- SHOULD support fully independently tracked pointers, if a touchscreen supports multiple pointers
- MUST report the value of
android.content.res.Configuration.touchscreen[ Resources, 40 ] corresponding to the type of the specific touchscreen on the device
Android 4.0 includes support for a variety of touch screens, touch pads, and fake touch input devices. Touch screen based device implementations are associated with a display [ Resources, 61 ] such that the user has the impression of directly manipulating items on screen. Since the user is directly touching the screen, the system does not require any additional affordances to indicate the objects being manipulated. In contrast, a fake touch interface provides a user input system that approximates a subset of touchscreen capabilities. For example, a mouse or remote control that drives an on-screen cursor approximates touch, but requires the user to first point or focus then click. Numerous input devices like the mouse, trackpad, gyro-based air mouse, gyro-pointer, joystick, and multi-touch trackpad can support fake touch interactions. Android 4.0 includes the feature constant
android.hardware.faketouch , which corresponds to a high-fidelity non-touch (that is, pointer-based) input device such as a mouse or trackpad that can adequately emulate touch-based input (including basic gesture support), and indicates that the device supports an emulated subset of touchscreen functionality. Device implementations that declare the fake touch feature MUST meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .
Device implementations MUST report the correct feature corresponding to the type of input used. Device implementations that include a touchscreen (single-touch or better) MUST also report the platform feature constant
android.hardware.faketouch . Device implementations that do not include a touchscreen (and rely on a pointer device only) MUST NOT report any touchscreen feature, and MUST report only
android.hardware.faketouch if they meet the fake touch requirements in Section 7.2.5 .
7.2.5. Fake touch input
Device implementations that declare support for
- MUST report the absolute X and Y screen positions of the pointer location and display a visual pointer on the screen[ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST report touch event with the action code [ Resources, 60 ] that specifies the state change that occurs on the pointer going
upon the screen [ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST support pointer
upon an object on the screen, which allows users to emulate tap on an object on the screen
- MUST support pointer
upin the same place on an object on the screen within a time threshold, which allows users to emulate double tap on an object on the screen [ Resources, 60 ]
- MUST support pointer
downon an arbitrary point on the screen, pointer move to any other arbitrary point on the screen, followed by a pointer
up, which allows users to emulate a touch drag
- MUST support pointer
downthen allow users to quickly move the object to a different position on the screen and then pointer
upon the screen, which allows users to fling an object on the screen
Devices that declare support for
android.hardware.faketouch.multitouch.distinct MUST meet the requirements for faketouch above, and MUST also support distinct tracking of two or more independent pointer inputs.
Device implementations MAY omit a microphone. However, if a device implementation omits a microphone, it MUST NOT report the
android.hardware.microphone feature constant, and must implement the audio recording API as no-ops, per Section 7 . Conversely, device implementations that do possess a microphone:
- MUST report the
- SHOULD meet the audio quality requirements in Section 5.3
- SHOULD meet the audio latency requirements in Section 5.4
Android 4.0 includes APIs for accessing a variety of sensor types. Devices implementations generally MAY omit these sensors, as provided for in the following subsections. If a device includes a particular sensor type that has a corresponding API for third-party developers, the device implementation MUST implement that API as described in the Android SDK documentation. For example, device implementations:
- MUST accurately report the presence or absence of sensors per the
android.content.pm.PackageManagerclass. [ Resources, 37 ]
- MUST return an accurate list of supported sensors via the
SensorManager.getSensorList()and similar methods
- MUST behave reasonably for all other sensor APIs (for example, by returning true or false as appropriate when applications attempt to register listeners, not calling sensor listeners when the corresponding sensors are not present; etc.)
- MUST report all sensor measurements using the relevant International System of Units (ie metric) values for each sensor type as defined in the Android SDK documentation [ Resources, 41 ]
The list above is not comprehensive; the documented behavior of the Android SDK is to be considered authoritative.
Some sensor types are synthetic, meaning they can be derived from data provided by one or more other sensors. (Examples include the orientation sensor, and the linear acceleration sensor.) Device implementations SHOULD implement these sensor types, when they include the prerequisite physical sensors.
The Android 4.0 APIs introduce a notion of a "streaming" sensor, which is one that returns data continuously, rather than only when the data changes. Device implementations MUST continuously provide periodic data samples for any API indicated by the Android 4.0 SDK documentation to be a streaming sensor.
Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis accelerometer. If a device implementation does include a 3-axis accelerometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 50 Hz or greater
- MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ])
- MUST be capable of measuring from freefall up to twice gravity (2g) or more on any three-dimensional vector
- MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.05 m/s^2
Device implementations SHOULD include a 3-axis magnetometer (ie compass.) If a device does include a 3-axis magnetometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 10 Hz or greater
- MUST comply with the Android sensor coordinate system as detailed in the Android APIs (see [ Resources, 41 ]).
- MUST be capable of sampling a range of field strengths adequate to cover the geomagnetic field
- MUST have 8-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a standard deviation no greater than 0.5 µT
Device implementations SHOULD include a GPS receiver. If a device implementation does include a GPS receiver, it SHOULD include some form of "assisted GPS" technique to minimize GPS lock-on time.
Device implementations SHOULD include a gyroscope (ie angular change sensor.) Devices SHOULD NOT include a gyroscope sensor unless a 3-axis accelerometer is also included. If a device implementation includes a gyroscope, it:
- MUST be temperature compensated
- MUST be capable of measuring orientation changes up to 5.5*Pi radians/second (that is, approximately 1,000 degrees per second)
- MUST be able to deliver events at 100 Hz or greater
- MUST have 12-bits of accuracy or more
- MUST have a variance no greater than 1e-7 rad^2 / s^2 per Hz (variance per Hz, or rad^2 / s). The variance is allowed to vary with the sampling rate, but must be constrained by this value. In other words, if you measure the variance of the gyro at 1 Hz sampling rate it should be no greater than 1e-7 rad^2/s^2.
- MUST have timestamps as close to when the hardware event happened as possible. The constant latency must be removed.
Device implementations MAY include a barometer (ie ambient air pressure sensor.) If a device implementation includes a barometer, it:
- MUST be able to deliver events at 5 Hz or greater
- MUST have adequate precision to enable estimating altitude
Device implementations MAY but SHOULD NOT include a thermometer (ie temperature sensor.) If a device implementation does include a thermometer, it MUST measure the temperature of the device CPU. It MUST NOT measure any other temperature. (Note that this sensor type is deprecated in the Android 4.0 APIs.)
Device implementations MAY include a photometer (ie ambient light sensor.)
7.3.8. Proximity Sensor
Device implementations MAY include a proximity sensor. If a device implementation does include a proximity sensor, it MUST measure the proximity of an object in the same direction as the screen. That is, the proximity sensor MUST be oriented to detect objects close to the screen, as the primary intent of this sensor type is to detect a phone in use by the user. If a device implementation includes a proximity sensor with any other orientation, it MUST NOT be accessible through this API. If a device implementation has a proximity sensor, it MUST be have 1-bit of accuracy or more.
7.4. Data Connectivity
"Telephony" as used by the Android 4.0 APIs and this document refers specifically to hardware related to placing voice calls and sending SMS messages via a GSM or CDMA network. While these voice calls may or may not be packet-switched, they are for the purposes of Android 4.0 considered independent of any data connectivity that may be implemented using the same network. In other words, the Android "telephony" functionality and APIs refer specifically to voice calls and SMS; for instance, device implementations that cannot place calls or send/receive SMS messages MUST NOT report the "android.hardware.telephony" feature or any sub-features, regardless of whether they use a cellular network for data connectivity.
Android 4.0 MAY be used on devices that do not include telephony hardware. That is, Android 4.0 is compatible with devices that are not phones. However, if a device implementation does include GSM or CDMA telephony, it MUST implement full support for the API for that technology. Device implementations that do not include telephony hardware MUST implement the full APIs as no-ops.
7.4.2. IEEE 802.11 (WiFi)
Android 4.0 device implementations SHOULD include support for one or more forms of 802.11 (b/g/a/n, etc.) If a device implementation does include support for 802.11, it MUST implement the corresponding Android API.
Device implementations SHOULD include a Bluetooth transceiver. Device implementations that do include a Bluetooth transceiver MUST enable the RFCOMM-based Bluetooth API as described in the SDK documentation [ Resources, 42 ]. Device implementations SHOULD implement relevant Bluetooth profiles, such as A2DP, AVRCP, OBEX, etc. as appropriate for the device.
The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-driven Bluetooth test procedure described in Appendix A.
7.4.4. Near-Field Communications
Device implementations SHOULD include a transceiver and related hardware for Near-Field Communications (NFC). If a device implementation does include NFC hardware, then it:
- MUST report the android.hardware.nfc feature from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()method. [ Resources, 37 ]
- MUST be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards:
- MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
- NfcA (ISO14443-3A)
- NfcB (ISO14443-3B)
- NfcF (JIS 6319-4)
- IsoDep (ISO 14443-4)
- NFC Forum Tag Types 1, 2, 3, 4 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- MUST be capable of acting as an NFC Forum reader/writer (as defined by the NFC Forum technical specification NFCForum-TS-DigitalProtocol-1.0) via the following NFC standards:
- SHOULD be capable of reading and writing NDEF messages via the following NFC standards. Note that while the NFC standards below are stated as "SHOULD" for Android 4.0, the Compatibility Definition for a future version is planned to change these to "MUST". That is, these stanards are optional in Android 4.0 but will be required in future versions. Existing and new devices that run Android 4.0 are very strongly encouraged to meet these requirements in Android 4.0 so they will be able to upgrade to the future platform releases.
- NfcV (ISO 15693)
- MUST be capable of transmitting and receiving data via the following peer-to-peer standards and protocols:
- ISO 18092
- LLCP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- SDP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- NDEF Push Protocol [ Resources, 43 ]
- SNEP 1.0 (defined by the NFC Forum)
- MUST include support for Android Beam:
- MUST implement the SNEP default server. Valid NDEF messages received by the default SNEP server MUST be dispatched to applications using the android.nfc.ACTION_NDEF_DISCOVERED intent. Disabling Android Beam in settings MUST NOT disable dispatch of incoming NDEF message.
- MUST implement the NPP server. Messages received by the NPP server MUST be processed the same way as the SNEP default server.
- MUST implement a SNEP client and attempt to send outbound P2P NDEF to the default SNEP server when Android Beam is enabled. If no default SNEP server is found then the client MUST attempt to send to an NPP server.
- MUST allow foreground activities to set the outbound P2P NDEF message using android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessage, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.setNdefPushMessageCallback, and android.nfc.NfcAdapter.enableForegroundNdefPush.
- SHOULD use a gesture or on-screen confirmation, such as 'Touch to Beam', before sending outbound P2P NDEF messages.
- SHOULD enable Android Beam by default
- MUST poll for all supported technologies while in NFC discovery mode.
- SHOULD be in NFC discovery mode while the device is awake with the screen active and the lock-screen unlocked.
(Note that publicly available links are not available for the JIS, ISO, and NFC Forum specifications cited above.)
Additionally, device implementations MAY include reader/writer support for the following MIFARE technologies.
- MIFARE Classic (NXP MF1S503x [ Resources, 44 ], MF1S703x [ Resources, 44 ])
- MIFARE Ultralight (NXP MF0ICU1 [ Resources, 46 ], MF0ICU2 [ Resources, 46 ])
- NDEF on MIFARE Classic (NXP AN130511 [ Resources, 48 ], AN130411 [ Resources, 49 ])
Note that Android 4.0 includes APIs for these MIFARE types. If a device implementation supports MIFARE in the reader/writer role, it:
- MUST implement the corresponding Android APIs as documented by the Android SDK
- MUST report the feature com.nxp.mifare from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature()method. [ Resources, 37 ] Note that this is not a standard Android feature, and as such does not appear as a constant on the
- MUST NOT implement the corresponding Android APIs nor report the com.nxp.mifare feature unless it also implements general NFC support as described in this section
If a device implementation does not include NFC hardware, it MUST NOT declare the android.hardware.nfc feature from the
android.content.pm.PackageManager.hasSystemFeature() method [ Resources, 37 ], and MUST implement the Android 4.0 NFC API as a no-op.
As the classes
android.nfc.NdefRecord represent a protocol-independent data representation format, device implementations MUST implement these APIs even if they do not include support for NFC or declare the android.hardware.nfc feature.
7.4.5. Minimum Network Capability
Device implementations MUST include support for one or more forms of data networking. Specifically, device implementations MUST include support for at least one data standard capable of 200Kbit/sec or greater. Examples of technologies that satisfy this requirement include EDGE, HSPA, EV-DO, 802.11g, Ethernet, etc.
Device implementations where a physical networking standard (such as Ethernet) is the primary data connection SHOULD also include support for at least one common wireless data standard, such as 802.11 (WiFi).
Devices MAY implement more than one form of data connectivity.
Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera, and MAY include a front-facing camera. A rear-facing camera is a camera located on the side of the device opposite the display; that is, it images scenes on the far side of the device, like a traditional camera. A front-facing camera is a camera located on the same side of the device as the display; that is, a camera typically used to image the user, such as for video conferencing and similar applications.
7.5.1. Rear-Facing Camera
Device implementations SHOULD include a rear-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a rear-facing camera, it:
- MUST have a resolution of at least 2 megapixels
- SHOULD have either hardware auto-focus, or software auto-focus implemented in the camera driver (transparent to application software)
- MAY have fixed-focus or EDOF (extended depth of field) hardware
- MAY include a flash. If the Camera includes a flash, the flash lamp MUST NOT be lit while an android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallback instance has been registered on a Camera preview surface, unless the application has explicitly enabled the flash by enabling the
FLASH_MODE_ONattributes of a
Camera.Parametersobject. Note that this constraint does not apply to the device's built-in system camera application, but only to third-party applications using
7.5.2. Front-Facing Camera
Device implementations MAY include a front-facing camera. If a device implementation includes a front-facing camera, it:
- MUST have a resolution of at least VGA (that is, 640x480 pixels)
- MUST NOT use a front-facing camera as the default for the Camera API. That is, the camera API in Android 4.0 has specific support for front-facing cameras, and device implementations MUST NOT configure the API to to treat a front-facing camera as the default rear-facing camera, even if it is the only camera on the device.
- MAY include features (such as auto-focus, flash, etc.) available to rear-facing cameras as described in Section 7.5.1.
- MUST horizontally reflect (ie mirror) the stream displayed by an app in a CameraPreview, as follows:
- If the device implementation is capable of being rotated by user (such as automatically via an accelerometer or manually via user input), the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the device's current orientation.
- If the current application has explicitly requested that the Camera display be rotated via a call to the
android.hardware.Camera.setDisplayOrientation()[ Resources, 50 ] method, the camera preview MUST be mirrored horizontally relative to the orientation specified by the application.
- Otherwise, the preview MUST be mirrored along the device's default horizontal axis.
- MUST mirror the image displayed by the postview in the same manner as the camera preview image stream. (If the device implementation does not support postview, this requirement obviously does not apply.)
- MUST NOT mirror the final captured still image or video streams returned to application callbacks or committed to media storage
7.5.3. Camera API Behavior
Device implementations MUST implement the following behaviors for the camera-related APIs, for both front- and rear-facing cameras:
- If an application has never called
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters.setPreviewFormat(int), then the device MUST use
android.hardware.PixelFormat.YCbCr_420_SPfor preview data provided to application callbacks.
- If an application registers an
android.hardware.Camera.PreviewCallbackinstance and the system calls the
onPreviewFrame()method when the preview format is YCbCr_420_SP, the data in the
onPreviewFrame()must further be in the NV21 encoding format. That is, NV21 MUST be the default.
- Device implementations MUST support the YV12 format (as denoted by the
android.graphics.ImageFormat.YV12constant) for camera previews for both front- and rear-facing cameras. (The hardware video decoder and camera may use any native pixel format, but the device implementation MUST support conversion to YV12.)
Device implementations MUST implement the full Camera API included in the Android 4.0 SDK documentation [ Resources, 51 ]), regardless of whether the device includes hardware autofocus or other capabilities. For instance, cameras that lack autofocus MUST still call any registered
android.hardware.Camera.AutoFocusCallback instances (even though this has no relevance to a non-autofocus camera.) Note that this does apply to front-facing cameras; for instance, even though most front-facing cameras do not support autofocus, the API callbacks must still be "faked" as described.
Device implementations MUST recognize and honor each parameter name defined as a constant on the
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters class, if the underlying hardware supports the feature. If the device hardware does not support a feature, the API must behave as documented. Conversely, Device implementations MUST NOT honor or recognize string constants passed to the
android.hardware.Camera.setParameters() method other than those documented as constants on the
android.hardware.Camera.Parameters . That is, device implementations MUST support all standard Camera parameters if the hardware allows, and MUST NOT support custom Camera parameter types.
Device implementations MUST broadcast the
Camera.ACTION_NEW_PICTURE intent whenever a new picture is taken by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.
Device implementations MUST broadcast the
Camera.ACTION_NEW_VIDEO intent whenever a new video is recorded by the camera and the entry of the picture has been added to the media store.
7.5.4. Camera Orientation
Both front- and rear-facing cameras, if present, MUST be oriented so that the long dimension of the camera aligns with the screen's long dimention. That is, when the device is held in the landscape orientation, cameras MUST capture images in the landscape orientation. This applies regardless of the device's natural orientation; that is, it applies to landscape-primary devices as well as portrait-primary devices.
7.6. Memory and Storage
7.6.1. Minimum Memory and Storage
Device implementations MUST have at least 340MB of memory available to the kernel and userspace. The 340MB MUST be in addition to any memory dedicated to hardware components such as radio, video, and so on that is not under the kernel's control.
Device implementations MUST have at least 350MB of non-volatile storage available for application private data. That is, the
/data partition MUST be at least 350MB.
The Android APIs include a Download Manager that applications may use to download data files [ Resources, 56 ]. The device implementation of the Download Manager MUST be capable of downloading individual files of at least 100MB in size to the default "cache" location.
7.6.2. Application Shared Storage
Device implementations MUST offer shared storage for applications. The shared storage provided MUST be at least 1GB in size.
Device implementations MUST be configured with shared storage mounted by default, "out of the box". If the shared storage is not mounted on the Linux path
/sdcard , then the device MUST include a Linux symbolic link from
/sdcard to the actual mount point.
Device implementations MUST enforce as documented the
android.permission.WRITE_EXTERNAL_STORAGE permission on this shared storage. Shared storage MUST otherwise be writable by any application that obtains that permission.
Device implementations MAY have hardware for user-accessible removable storage, such as a Secure Digital card. Alternatively, device implementations MAY allocate internal (non-removable) storage as shared storage for apps.
Regardless of the form of shared storage used, device implementations MUST provide some mechanism to access the contents of shared storage from a host computer, such as USB mass storage (UMS) or Media Transfer Protocol (MTP). Device implementations MAY use USB mass storage, but SHOULD use Media Transfer Protocol. If the device implementation supports Media Transfer Protocol:
- The device implementation SHOULD be compatible with the reference Android MTP host, Android File Transfer [ Resources, 57 ].
- The device implementation SHOULD report a USB device class of
- The device implementation SHOULD report a USB interface name of 'MTP'.
If the device implementation lacks USB ports, it MUST provide a host computer with access to the contents of shared storage by some other means, such as a network file system.
It is illustrative to consider two common examples. If a device implementation includes an SD card slot to satisfy the shared storage requirement, a FAT-formatted SD card 1GB in size or larger MUST be included with the device as sold to users, and MUST be mounted by default. Alternatively, if a device implementation uses internal fixed storage to satisfy this requirement, that storage MUST be 1GB in size or larger and mounted on
/sdcard MUST be a symbolic link to the physical location if it is mounted elsewhere.)
Device implementations that include multiple shared storage paths (such as both an SD card slot and shared internal storage) SHOULD modify the core applications such as the media scanner and ContentProvider to transparently support files placed in both locations.
Device implementations SHOULD include a USB client port, and SHOULD include a USB host port.
If a device implementation includes a USB client port:
- the port MUST be connectable to a USB host with a standard USB-A port
- the port SHOULD use the micro USB form factor on the device side
- it MUST allow a host connected to the device to access the contents of the shared storage volume using either USB mass storage or Media Transfer Protocol
- it MUST implement the Android Open Accessory API and specification as documented in the Android SDK documentation, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature
android.hardware.usb.accessory[ Resources, 51 ]
If a device implementation includes a USB host port:
- it MAY use a non-standard port form factor, but if so MUST ship with a cable or cables adapting the port to standard USB-A
- it MUST implement the Android USB host API as documented in the Android SDK, and MUST declare support for the hardware feature
android.hardware.usb.host[ Resources, 52 ]
Device implementations MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge. If a device implementation omits a USB client port, it MUST implement the Android Debug Bridge via local-area network (such as Ethernet or 802.11)
8. Performance Compatibility
Device implementations MUST meet the key performance metrics of an Android 4.0 compatible device defined in the table below:
|Application Launch Time|| The following applications should launch within the specified time.||The launch time is measured as the total time to complete loading the default activity for the application, including the time it takes to start the Linux process, load the Android package into the Dalvik VM, and call onCreate.|
|Simultaneous Applications||When multiple applications have been launched, re-launching an already-running application after it has been launched must take less than the original launch time.|
9. Security Model Compatibility
Device implementations MUST implement a security model consistent with the Android platform security model as defined in Security and Permissions reference document in the APIs [ Resources, 54 ] in the Android developer documentation. Device implementations MUST support installation of self-signed applications without requiring any additional permissions/certificates from any third parties/authorities. Specifically, compatible devices MUST support the security mechanisms described in the follow sub-sections.
Device implementations MUST support the Android permissions model as defined in the Android developer documentation [ Resources, 54 ]. Specifically, implementations MUST enforce each permission defined as described in the SDK documentation; no permissions may be omitted, altered, or ignored. Implementations MAY add additional permissions, provided the new permission ID strings are not in the android.* namespace.
9.2. UID and Process Isolation
Device implementations MUST support the Android application sandbox model, in which each application runs as a unique Unix-style UID and in a separate process. Device implementations MUST support running multiple applications as the same Linux user ID, provided that the applications are properly signed and constructed, as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].
9.3. Filesystem Permissions
Device implementations MUST support the Android file access permissions model as defined in as defined in the Security and Permissions reference [ Resources, 54 ].
9.4. Alternate Execution Environments
Device implementations MAY include runtime environments that execute applications using some other software or technology than the Dalvik virtual machine or native code. However, such alternate execution environments MUST NOT compromise the Android security model or the security of installed Android applications, as described in this section.
Alternate runtimes MUST themselves be Android applications, and abide by the standard Android security model, as described elsewhere in Section 9.
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be granted access to resources protected by permissions not requested in the runtime's AndroidManifest.xml file via the
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT permit applications to make use of features protected by Android permissions restricted to system applications.
Alternate runtimes MUST abide by the Android sandbox model. Specifically:
- Alternate runtimes SHOULD install apps via the PackageManager into separate Android sandboxes (that is, Linux user IDs, etc.)
- Alternate runtimes MAY provide a single Android sandbox shared by all applications using the alternate runtime.
- Alternate runtimes and installed applications using an alternate runtime MUST NOT reuse the sandbox of any other app installed on the device, except through the standard Android mechanisms of shared user ID and signing certificate
- Alternate runtimes MUST NOT launch with, grant, or be granted access to the sandboxes corresponding to other Android applications.
Alternate runtimes MUST NOT be launched with, be granted, or grant to other applications any privileges of the superuser (root), or of any other user ID.
The .apk files of alternate runtimes MAY be included in the system image of a device implementation, but MUST be signed with a key distinct from the key used to sign other applications included with the device implementation.
When installing applications, alternate runtimes MUST obtain user consent for the Android permissions used by the application. That is, if an application needs to make use of a device resource for which there is a corresponding Android permission (such as Camera, GPS, etc.), the alternate runtime MUST inform the user that the application will be able to access that resource. If the runtime environment does not record application capabilities in this manner, the runtime environment MUST list all permissions held by the runtime itself when installing any application using that runtime.
10. Software Compatibility Testing
Device implementations MUST pass all tests described in this section.
However, note that no software test package is fully comprehensive. For this reason, device implementers are very strongly encouraged to make the minimum number of changes as possible to the reference and preferred implementation of Android 4.0 available from the Android Open Source Project. This will minimize the risk of introducing bugs that create incompatibilities requiring rework and potential device updates.
10.1. Compatibility Test Suite
Device implementations MUST pass the Android Compatibility Test Suite (CTS) [ Resources, 2 ] available from the Android Open Source Project, using the final shipping software on the device. Additionally, device implementers SHOULD use the reference implementation in the Android Open Source tree as much as possible, and MUST ensure compatibility in cases of ambiguity in CTS and for any reimplementations of parts of the reference source code.
The CTS is designed to be run on an actual device. Like any software, the CTS may itself contain bugs. The CTS will be versioned independently of this Compatibility Definition, and multiple revisions of the CTS may be released for Android 4.0. Device implementations MUST pass the latest CTS version available at the time the device software is completed.
10.2. CTS Verifier
Device implementations MUST correctly execute all applicable cases in the CTS Verifier. The CTS Verifier is included with the Compatibility Test Suite, and is intended to be run by a human operator to test functionality that cannot be tested by an automated system, such as correct functioning of a camera and sensors.
The CTS Verifier has tests for many kinds of hardware, including some hardware that is optional. Device implementations MUST pass all tests for hardware which they possess; for instance, if a device possesses an accelerometer, it MUST correctly execute the Accelerometer test case in the CTS Verifier. Test cases for features noted as optional by this Compatibility Definition Document MAY be skipped or omitted.
Every device and every build MUST correctly run the CTS Verifier, as noted above. However, since many builds are very similar, device implementers are not expected to explicitly run the CTS Verifier on builds that differ only in trivial ways. Specifically, device implementations that differ from an implementation that has passed the CTS Verfier only by the set of included locales, branding, etc. MAY omit the CTS Verifier test.
10.3. Reference Applications
Device implementers MUST test implementation compatibility using the following open source applications:
- The "Apps for Android" applications [ Resources, 55 ].
- Replica Island (available in Android Market)
Each app above MUST launch and behave correctly on the implementation, for the implementation to be considered compatible.
11. Updatable Software
Device implementations MUST include a mechanism to replace the entirety of the system software. The mechanism need not perform "live" upgrades - that is, a device restart MAY be required.
Any method can be used, provided that it can replace the entirety of the software preinstalled on the device. For instance, any of the following approaches will satisfy this requirement:
- Over-the-air (OTA) downloads with offline update via reboot
- "Tethered" updates over USB from a host PC
- "Offline" updates via a reboot and update from a file on removable storage
The update mechanism used MUST support updates without wiping user data. That is, the update mechanism MUST preserve application private data and application shared data. Note that the upstream Android software includes an update mechanism that satisfies this requirement.
If an error is found in a device implementation after it has been released but within its reasonable product lifetime that is determined in consultation with the Android Compatibility Team to affect the compatibility of third-party applications, the device implementer MUST correct the error via a software update available that can be applied per the mechanism just described.
12. Contact Us
You can contact the document authors at email@example.com for clarifications and to bring up any issues that you think the document does not cover.
Appendix A - Bluetooth Test Procedure
The Compatibility Test Suite includes cases that cover basic operation of the Android RFCOMM Bluetooth API. However, since Bluetooth is a communications protocol between devices, it cannot be fully tested by unit tests running on a single device. Consequently, device implementations MUST also pass the human-operated Bluetooth test procedure described below.
The test procedure is based on the BluetoothChat sample app included in the Android open source project tree. The procedure requires two devices:
- a candidate device implementation running the software build to be tested
- a separate device implementation already known to be compatible, and of a model from the device implementation being tested - that is, a "known good" device implementation
The test procedure below refers to these devices as the "candidate" and "known good" devices, respectively.
Setup and Installation
- Build BluetoothChat.apk via 'make samples' from an Android source code tree.
- Install BluetoothChat.apk on the known-good device.
- Install BluetoothChat.apk on the candidate device.
Test Bluetooth Control by Apps
- Launch BluetoothChat on the candidate device, while Bluetooth is disabled.
- Verify that the candidate device either turns on Bluetooth, or prompts the user with a dialog to turn on Bluetooth.
Test Pairing and Communication
- Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Make the known-good device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
- On the candidate device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the known-good device.
- Send 10 or more messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
- Close the BluetoothChat app on both devices by pressing Home .
- Unpair each device from the other, using the device Settings app.
Test Pairing and Communication in the Reverse Direction
- Launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Make the candidate device discoverable from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu).
- On the known-good device, scan for Bluetooth devices from within BluetoothChat (using the Menu) and pair with the candidate device.
- Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
- Close the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices by pressing Back repeatedly to get to the Launcher.
- Re-launch the Bluetooth Chat app on both devices.
- Send 10 or messages from each device, and verify that the other device receives them correctly.
Note: the above tests have some cases which end a test section by using Home, and some using Back. These tests are not redundant and are not optional: the objective is to verify that the Bluetooth API and stack works correctly both when Activities are explicitly terminated (via the user pressing Back, which calls finish()), and implicitly sent to background (via the user pressing Home.) Each test sequence MUST be performed as described.